This paper examines the relationship between legal transplant and legal translation and their roles in cultural transfer. It classifies legal transplants into two kinds: legal imposition at the socio-political level and legal translation at the socio-linguistic level. Legal translation is usually the major conduit of legal transplant in the case of legal reform in the receiving country. Since transplantation involves the transfer of the conceptual thinking of the imported law, legal transplant often brings about a transfer of legal culture. Legal translation as a form of legal transplant always involves the transfer of the legal culture of the translated law at the socio-linguistic level. Legal translation in the context of Hong Kong serves as a case of foreignization, requiring both linguistic and conceptual adjustment of the translating language to accommodate the imported culture.
Authors:Yue Tingsheng, Ling Daren, Wang Yani and Wang Yukun
Our previous paper reported the effect of acidity and temperature on uranous-uranil isotope exchange reaction in sulphuric
acid solution.1 It was found that the half-life of the isotope reactiont1/2 is around 10 seconds, when the acidity and the temperature of the reaction system are reasonably selected. However, when
the uranium isotopes are enriched by ion exchange the single separation factor could be 1.001. Thus, the half-life,t1/2 is less than one second for potential industrial application.
Authors:Gao-Yong Liu, Ji-Ming Hu and Hui-Ling Wang
The aim of this study is to map the intellectual structure of digital library (DL) field in China during the period of 2002–2011. Co-word analysis was employed to reveal the patterns of DL field in China through measuring the association strength of keywords in relevant journals. Data was collected from Chinese Journal Full-Text Database during the period of 2002–2011. And then, the co-occurrence matrix of keywords was analyzed by the methods of multivariate statistical analysis and social network analysis. The results mainly include five parts: seven clusters of keywords, a two-dimensional map, the density and centrality of clusters, a strategic diagram, and a relation network. The results show that there are some hot research topics and marginal topics in DL field in China, but the research topics are relatively decentralized compared with the international studies.
Authors:Ling Zhang, Huan Zhao, Qiushi Li, Juan Wang and Xin Tan
An article assessment system based on both Tianjin University and nine key Chinese Universities’ academic disciplinary benchmarks
was established to evaluate researcher’s published papers. With this scientific benchmarking system, the quality of a researcher’s
papers could be easily located in a percentile scale in corresponding field within certain groups. Several factors, including
total number of papers, order of authors, impact of journals, citation count, h-index, e-index, a-index, m-quotient, etc.,
were also utilized for both quantity and quality analysis. Furthermore, the novel proposed weighted citation analysis was
introduced to judge a researcher’s contribution to his/her research outcomes. The convenient application and comprehensive
evaluation property of this assessment system was thoroughly discussed via a given example.
Authors:Show-Ling Jang, Yun-Chen Yu and Tzu-Ya Wang
USPTO patent data covering the years 1994–2008 is used in this study to examine the citation networks of electronic-paper display technology. Our primary aim is to provide a better understanding of the ways in which emerging firms interact with, and learn from, technology diffusers. Two implications can be drawn from our analysis. Firstly, emerging firms within an emerging industry can enhance their technological capabilities through positive external learning activity. Secondly, despite the fact that technology diffusers have clear technological advantages, with the emergence of a new field, their influence within the network could potentially be decayed if they fail to remain proactive in terms of the absorption of available external knowledge.
Authors:JianHua Zhang, Ling Wang, Xi Zhu, Xue Bai and Hua Yin
You-Gui-Yin (YGY), a famous traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in clinics for the treatment of kidney-yang deficiency, yang deficiency caused by excessive yin, and osteoporosis. A rapid and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (UPLC–ESI–MS) method for simultaneous determination of six Aconitum alkaloids including aconitine (AC), hypaconitine (HA), mesaconitine (MA), benzoylaconine (BAC), benzoylhypaconine (BHA), and benzoylmesaconine (BMA) in rat plasma after oral administration of YGY was developed in this study. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of 2 mmol/L ammonium formate in 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution and 0.05% formic acid methanol solution, at a flow rate of 0.20 mL/min. MS detection was performed in the positive ion mode. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.04160–41.60 ng/mL, 0.1070–107.0 ng/mL, 0.07358–73.50 ng/mL, 0.03228–32.28 ng/mL, 0.01809–18.09 ng/mL, and 0.1320–132.0 ng/mL for AC, HA, MA, BAC, BHA, and BMA, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation [RSD]) were less than 11.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The accuracies Relative Error (RE) ranged from −10.2% to 5.6%, while the recoveries ranged from 70.4% to 99.3%. The method for simultaneous quantitation of Aconitum alkaloids of You-Gui-Yin in rat plasma is accurate and repeatable, and this method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the six Aconitum alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of YGY. For the pharmacokinetic study, the pharmacokinetics of the six Aconitum alkaloids were best described by a two-compartment open model.
Authors:Chunli Liu, Xiangyun Wang, Shushen Li, Zhiming Wang, Jinsheng Wang, Bing Li and Ling Jiang
As part of a co-operative research project between the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) on safety assessment method for shallow land disposal of low level radioactive wastes, the migration of 85Sr in unsaturated Chinese loess under natural and artificial rainfall conditions was in-situ investigated. 3H was used for obtaining the migration velocity of the moisture water in the test zone. The result of the 2-year test indicated that under natural rainfall conditions, the migration of 85Sr is a combination of downward and upward movements. It moves down in summer and moves up in winter. Under artificial rainfall conditions the migration of 85Sr is a velocity-change process. It migrates down faster in summer and slower in winter. This phenomenon is considered to be caused by the dry winter and relatively wet summer.
Authors:Chu-Fang Wang, Fang-Huang Tu, Su-Ling Jeng and Ching-Jer Chin
This study reports the analysis of Si in airborne particulate matter by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
(LA-ICP-MS) as well as X-ray fluorescence (XRF). It was found that Si concentration in airborne particulates collected on
PTFE-membrane filters could be accurately determined with a laser beam operated at 160 mJ free running mode, 6.5 mm defocusing
distance and 0.8 l/min carrier gas flow rate during the LA-ICP-MS measurement. Standard filters prepared by NIST SRM 1648
urban particulates were used for both XRF and LA-ICP-MS not only to establish the calibration curves of Si, but also to examine
the proposed method's effectiveness. The capability of applying both methods for natural sample analysis was also examined.
Particulate loaded filter samples collected from a heavily polluted metropolitan area of Kaoshiung, Taiwan were initially
measured by XRF, then by LA-ICP-MS. An intercomparison between them was thus performed. As a result, both XRF and LA-ICP-MS
proved to be the valid analytical methods for directly determining Si concentrations in airborne particulates on PTFE membrane
Authors:Zhou Bao-xue, Zhong Wei-ke, Zou Li-zhuang and Wang Xiao-ling
Barium(II) tetraphenylborate, Ba(Bph4))2·4H2O was prepared, and its decomposition mechanism was studied by means of TG and DTA. The products of thermal decomposition were examined by means of gas chromatography and chemical methods. A kinetic analysis of the first stage of thermal decomposition was made on the basis of TG and DTG curves and kinetic parameters were obtained from an analysis of the TG and DTG curves using integral and differential methods. The most probable kinetic function was suggested by comparison of kinetic parameters. A mathematical expression was derived for the kinetic compensation effect.
Authors:Ling-Li Li, Guohua Ding, Nan Feng, Ming-Huang Wang and Yuh-Shan Ho
In this study, we aim to evaluate the global scientific production of stem cell research for the past 16 years and provide
insights into the characteristics of the stem cell research activities and identify patterns, tendencies, or regularities
that may exist in the papers. Data are based on the online version of SCI, Web of Science from 1991 to 2006. Articles referring
to stem cell were assessed by many aspects including exponential fitting the trend of publication outputs during 1991–2006,
distribution of source title, author keyword, and keyword plus analysis. Based on the exponential fitting the yearly publicans
of the last decade, it can also be calculated that, in 2,011, the number of scientific papers on the topic of stem-cell will
be twice of the number of publications in 2006. Synthetically analyzing three kinds of keywords, it can be concluded that
application of stem cell transplantation technology to human disease therapy, especially research related on “embryonic stem
cell” and “mesenchymal stem cell” is the orientation of all the stem cell research in the 21st century. This new bibliometric method can help relevant researchers realize the panorama of global stem cell research, and
establish the further research direction.