The study of university–industry (U–I) relations has been the focus of growing interest in the literature. However, to date, a quantitative overview of the existing literature in this field has yet to be accomplished. This study intends to fill this gap through the use of bibliometric techniques. By using three different yet interrelated databases—a database containing the articles published on U–I links, which encompass 534 articles published between 1986 and 2011; a ‘roots’ database, which encompasses over 20,000 references to the articles published on U–I relations; and a ‘influences’ database which includes more than 15,000 studies that cited the articles published on U–I relations—we obtained the following results: (1) ‘Academic spin offs’, ‘Scientific and technological policies’ and (to a greater extent) ‘Knowledge Transfer Channels’ are topics in decline; (2) ‘Characteristics of universities, firms and scientists’, along with ‘Regional spillovers’, show remarkable growth, and ‘Measures and indicators’ can be considered an emergent topic; (3) clear tendency towards ‘empirical’ works, although ‘appreciative and empirical’ papers constitute the bulk of this literature; (4) the multidisciplinary nature of the intellectual roots of the U–I literature—an interesting blending of neoclassical economics (focused on licensing, knowledge transfer and high-tech entrepreneurship) and heterodox approaches (mainly related to systems of innovation) is observed in terms of intellectual roots; (5) the influence of the U–I literature is largely concentrated on the industrialized world and on the research area of innovation and technology (i.e., some ‘scientific endogamy’ is observed).
Authors:Maria Luisa A. Gonçalves, Deusa A. Pinto da Mota, Ana Maria R. F. Teixeira, and M. A. G. Teixeira
Summary Thermogravimetry (TG) is a potential tool to evaluate petroleum distillation residues, obtained in the crude oil distillation. Analyses were done at different heating rates, mass samples and gas flow rates. No differences were observed in the yields of the products formed during the pyrolysis at different analytical conditions. Linear correlation was found between the results of the TG and the standard methods for the prediction of the light fraction rates given by the pyrolysis.
Authors:Maria Luisa A. Gonçalves, D. A. Ribeiro, Deusa Angélica P. Da Mota, Ana Maria R. F. Teixeira, and M. A. G. Teixeira
Summary Thermogravimetry (TG) was applied to evaluate the thermal behavior of five refinery atmospheric distillation residues (ATR) obtained from different Brazilian crude oils. The asphaltenes were extracted of each sample and their influence on coke formation was studied. It was observed that they have a great contribution on carbonaceous residues formation during pyrolysis and that the heavier the ATR sample, the higher is the contribution of other heavy components present in ATR samples.