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A tanulmányban a szerző áttekinti a Kárpát-medencéből ismert kocsimodelleket a rézkortól a középső bronzkorig. Az elmúlt évtizedek kutatási eredményei (edényekre rajzolt kocsiábrázolás, igavonó állatok torzói, keréklenyomatok ismertté válása, radiocarbon-adatok) jelentősen módosították a kocsi európai megjelenésének időpontját: egyre több bizonyíték szól amellett, hogy a kerekes jármű már a badeni kultúra előtt is létezett. A szerző ezeket a bizonyítékokat veszi sorra egy új kocsimodell közlésének apropóján.

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Two of the most significant innovations of the fourth millennium BC were the invention of the wheel and of wheeled vehicles, which led to other major innovations during the Late Copper Age. Discussed here are the major milestones and advances in research on wheeled vehicles, problems of dating, and the issues relating to the actual place of the invention of wheeled vehicles as well as the fruitful collaboration between various analytical disciplines and archaeology concerned with the study of wheels and early wheeled vehicles.

I have collected the finds relating to wheels and wheeled vehicles. It would appear that the invention of the wheel and of wheeled conveyances occurred in different centres. Even though we are unable to date the creation of the very first vehicle to the year, it seems quite certain that wheeled vehicles appeared more or less simultaneously in several regions in the fourth millennium BC.

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The paradigm shift in the later fourth millennium BC. •

Why did life change in the Middle Copper Age in the heartland of the Carpathian Basin?

Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Mária Bondár


The fourth millennium BC, particularly its second half, saw the advent of major innovations that still affect our life today, sometimes as artefacts still used in a virtually unchanged form. Among these, the most important are wheels and wheeled vehicles, the innovations introduced as part of the Secondary Products Revolution, and the new technologies of metalworking. Initially surrounded by an aura of mystique and reverence, these innovations gradually became part of everyday life and their benefits, such as a more secure livelihood engendering new subsistence strategies, were enjoyed by a growing number of communities. Better life circumstances stimulated population growth, which in turn sparked an increase in the number of settlements as well as an incipient socio-economic hierarchy between them. Improving life circumstances, receptiveness to new ideas and increasingly dynamic contacts with distant regions brought a change in previous norms and social values. This paradigm shift can be best traced in the mortuary realm: various objects signalling the status and/or prestige of a community's prominent members began to be deposited in burials. Daily life became more predictable and was accompanied by a certain measure of wealth accumulation, which, however, also stimulated frugality. Hard-to-obtain exotic commodities were highly prized and usually only their down-scaled versions fashioned from clay accompanied the dead instead of the real-life animal or prestige item. Described and briefly discussed in the present study are certain aspects of this complex process.

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This study investigates the relative chronology of the Late Copper Age Baden culture by analysing the pottery of the largest known cemeteries (Alsónémedi, Budakalász, Fonyód-Bézsenypuszta, Balatonlelle-Felső Gamász, Pilismarót-Basaharc and Mezőcsát-Hörcsögös). Altogether 611 ceramic finds from 253 graves were involved in the research. The results presented here are preliminary; all the known Baden cemeteries will be processed in the future.

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