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  • Author or Editor: Mária Gyöngyösi x
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Both Blok and Wagner are artists of the "crisis", and their aesthetics coincide in many points (Gesamtkunstwerk, Künstlermensch). In their arts neomythologism is realized in a myth concentrated in a symbol on the one hand, or in a music-drama swollen into a tetralogy on the other. The Wagnerian "Leitmotif" plays an important composing role in the analyzed Blok-poems. Through a considerable part of the Blok-cycle the thematically also very musical "Harps and Violins" marches the duality of attraction of passion and suppres-sion of passion, and in the end it is dissolved in the indelible memory of first love. Here, too, like in the drama "The Song of the Fate" the main role is played by the violins that symbolize passion. Considering Wagner-reminiscencies the essay emphasizes on the drama mentioned above and the poem "Retribution". Both go back to the figure of Siegfried, who is a symboli-cally important hero to Blok. Retribution is the idea that connects Wagner and Ibsen - but Ibsen is also remarkable for the harp-motive ("The Master Builder"). The Wagnerian dragon from Nietzsche's Zarathustra appears in Blok's poem, too, and the idea common to all four authors: the motives of the child and of the new beginning is also apparent. The metaphysical music concept of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche is the key to the theoretical writings of the two analyzed authors. According to Wagner divine music that expresses the essence of phenom-ena combined with drama is able to come to life. It is new in Blok's music concept that the life-changing, irresistible force of nature is also called "music" by him.

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The aim of this paper is to open up the typological parallelisms (motives, colours, and the position of the lyrical “me”) between the city imageries of Rilke and Blok. The analysis covers Rilke’s lyrics and Blok’s three cycles (The City, Terrible World and Italian Verses). The comparative analysis focuses on the poetry of their hometowns (Prague and St. Petersburg), that of modern cities, and of Italian towns visited by the authors. The question of the modern city and the criticism of civilization represent several similarities in the two poets’ works, but the secessionist garden, park, and castle motives occur only in Rilke’s poetry. The topics of Venice and St. Petersburg, which are related to each other in many ways, are formulated in the objective lyrics of Rilke’s volume New Poems. In Blok’s poetry, it is the composition and the philosophical content of the Italian Verses cycle as a high-ranking and complete literary work that deserves special attention.

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In the first place, the paper ventures to trace what the Blok phenomenon meant for Pasternak and it tries to interpret the definition in the novel “Doctor Zhivago” which says that Blok was the manifestation of Christmas himself. Thereunto it examines the role of the topic and motives of Christmas in Blok’s poetry and publicity. In the greater part of the writing, it traces down the (thematical, motional, metrical, and rhyme) intertextualities that can be discovered between the cycle “The Poems of Doctor Zhivago” and Blok’s poetry, and also their dynamics within the cycle. The poem “Fairy Tale” and the “Mary Magdalene” cycle proved to be of major importance.

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The paper surveys the types of personal (‘confessional’) poetry and thing-poetry within the oeuvres of Blok and Rilke, respectively and compared to each other. Investigations have shown contact points in this underresearched domain, and also isolated a considerable number of poems in the cycle Verses about the Beautiful Lady, distinct from the atmosphere of mysticism and expectations, which contain a great amount of realia and impressionistic depictions. Furthermore, Rilke’s quasi-objective poetry (in Neue Gedichte) cannot be termed as ‘objective’.

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