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This article presents the findings of a qualitative research project which aimed to map out the political evaluations and the social effects of the changing concept of family and the changing forms of family life. By interviewing political and economic decision-makers we intended to highlight the goals and the motives of the differenct family policy approaches, the characteristic features of the family concepts reflected by the policy-makers' decisions, as well as the relationship between state family policies and labor market policies on the one hand, and equal treatment expectations concerning both genders, on the other. On the basis of interviews conducted with ordinary people we examined how much people's lives are practically infuenced by the family policy measures introduced by the political and the economic decision makers. According to our findings the two different categories of respondents saw specific family policy issues in different ways - however, their interpretations of family policy as a whole were rather convergent. The importance of providing equality of opportunity for men and women, increasing the female employment rate, acknowledging the plurality of family lifestyles, reconciling work and family life - being European expectations as well as conditions of a worthy life - seemed to be overshadowed by the demographic issues of fertility and procreation.

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Review of the book “RNA/DNA and Cancer” written by Joseph G. Sinkovics (Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 2016, ISBN 978-3-319-22278-3, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-22279-0)

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Magyarországra behurcolt trópusi arbovírusfertőzések 2016 és 2020 között

Imported tropical arbovirus infections in Hungary between 2016 and 2020

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Orsolya Nagy, Anna Nagy, Szilvia Tóth, Anita Koroknai, and Mária Takács

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A Dengue-, Zika- és Chikungunya-vírus-fertőzések a trópusokról importált leggyakoribb arbovírusfertőzések. Földrajzi elterjedésük átfedő, közös vektoraik és hasonló tüneteik miatt szerológiai és molekuláris módszerek együttes alkalmazásán alapuló mikrobiológiai vizsgálatokkal különíthetők el megbízhatóan. Célkitűzés: Munkánk célja a 2016 és 2020 között endémiás területen járt, tünetes és tünetmentes utazók vizsgálata volt, minden esetben mindhárom vírusfertőzés irányában. A diagnosztikus tesztek során az alvadásgátolt teljes vér és vizelet bevonásával vizsgáltuk a vírus-RNS kimutathatóságának esélyét a különböző mintatípusokból. Módszer: Savópárminták szerológiai analízise során a Dengue-, Zika- és Chikungunya-vírus-specifikus ellenanyagválasz alakulását vizsgáltuk ELISA-módszerrel. Reaktív eredmények esetében a szerológiai keresztreakciók kizárására immunfluoreszcens és ELISA-technikán alapuló további vizsgálatokat végeztünk a hazai és az utazás során érintett területeken előforduló flavi- és alphavirusok irányában. Vérsavó-, alvadásgátolt teljes vér és vizeletmintákból reverztranszkripciót követő valós idejű polimeráz-láncreakcióval vírus-RNS-kimutatást végeztünk. Eredmények: Az 1037 vizsgált utazó közül 133 esetben kaptunk reaktív szerológiai és/vagy molekuláris eredményt. Az alvadásgátolt teljes vér mintából sikerült a legnagyobb arányban vírusnukleinsavat kimutatni mind a Dengue- és Zika-, mind a Chikungunya-vírus esetében. Megbeszélés: Endémiás területről hazatért utazók vizsgálatát a tünetek hasonlósága miatt mindhárom vírusfertőzés irányában együttesen indokolt elvégezni. A flavi- és alphavirusokra jellemző nagyfokú szerológiai keresztreaktivitás miatt a nukleinsav-kimutatás javíthatja a mikrobiológiai diagnosztika pontosságát. Következtetés: A három vírus mikrobiológiai diagnosztikáját segíti a korai mintavétel és a molekuláris vizsgálatok kiterjesztése további mintatípusokra: alvadásgátolt teljes vér és vizelet. A behurcolt vírusfertőzések azonosítása fokozott jelentőségű, mert az Európában is jelen lévő vektorszúnyogfajok felvetik az autochton átvitel lehetőségét. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(50): 2000–2009.

Summary. Introduction: Dengue-, Zika- and Chikungunya infections are among the most frequently imported tropical arbovirus infections. Due to their shared endemic regions, vectors and similar clinical symptoms, differential diagnosis is based on serological and molecular analysis. Objective: The aim of our study was to identify the imported arbovirus infections of travellers between 2016 and 2020. Furthermore, to improve the diagnostic sensitivity, anticoagulated whole blood and urine samples were involved in molecular diagnosis. Method: Virus-specific antibody kinetics was tested in paired sera of patients by ELISA method. In case of reactive results, further serological analysis was performed using immunofluorescence assays and/or ELISA tests to exclude serological cross-reactions caused by other members of the flavi- and alphaviruses. Detection of viral RNA was attempted from serum, anticoagulated whole blood and urine specimens using reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Out of the tested 1037 travellers, reactive serological and/or molecular results were obtained in 133 cases. Anticoagulated whole blood proved to be the most suitable specimen for viral RNA detection of the three viruses. Discussion: Parallel testing of Dengue-, Zika- and Chikungunya infections is recommended, as symptom-based differential diagnosis is challenging. Due to the characteristic serological cross-reactivity of flavi- and alphaviruses, microbiological diagnosis relies on both serological and molecular tests. Conclusion: Involving anticoagulated whole blood and urine samples into molecular analysis and early sample collection improve the sensitivity of microbiological diagnostics. Identification of imported tropical arbovirus infections is of high importance as the presence of vector mosquitos in Europe raises the possibility of autochthon transmission. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(50): 2000–2009.

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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: George Kara, Réka Takács, Gergely Salát, Edit Bányász, and Mária Ivanics

Tibetische Handschriften und Blockdrucke, Teil 17 (Die mTshur-phu-Ausgabe der Sammlung Rin-chen gter-mdzod chen-mo, nach dem Exemplar der Orientabteilung, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin-Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Hs or 778, Bände 34 bis 40), beschrieben von Peter Schwieger;  Long Dong (ed.): Ling ting Xizang, Yi xiaoshuo de fangsi [Listening to Tibet. Short stories]; Catalogue of the Collections of Sir Aurel Stein in the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Compiled by John Falconer-Ágnes Kárteszi-Ágnes Kelecsényi-Lilla Russel-Smith, edited by Éva Apor-Helen Wang;  Robert Hymes: Way and Byway; V. V. Trepavlov: Istorija Nogajskoj Ordy;  Benderli Gün-Gülen Yılmaz-Kakuk Zsuzsa-Tasnádi Edit: Magyar-török szótár.

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Transmission of pathogens via healthcare workers’ (HCWs) hands is one of the most frequent means of spreading multi-resistant organisms and occurring healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in hospitals. The role of contaminated hands in pathogen transmission was recognized by Hungarian physician, Ignác Semmelweis. Hand hygiene prevents cross-infections in hospitals, but numerous epidemiological and microbiology-based studies have documented low compliance of HCWs with this simple procedure. Furthermore, hand hygiene perception of HCWs plays an important role in determining hand hygiene compliance. Our aim was to describe the opinion of HCWs about their perception regarding hand hygiene practice. Our further goal was to strengthen a laboratory basis for bacterial backup control of nosocomial pathogens. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between December 2010 and February 2011 in 13 participating hospitals in Hungary. HCWs know that there is correlation between contaminated hands and HAIs (83%), but neither the frequency (62%) nor the implementation (73%) of their hand hygiene performance are satisfying.We recommend that multimodal interventions — highlighted active microbiological surveillance of HCWs’ hands — are the most suitable strategies to reduce the occurrence of HAIs and to determine their impact on cross-transmission of microorganisms and to overcome barriers of HCWs.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Gabriella Kazinczi, Péter Varga, András Takács, Mária Torma, and József Horváth
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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: András Takács, Gabriella Kazinczi, József Horváth, and Mária Hadzsi
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In accordance with the 2015 regional goal for measles and rubella elimination of the WHO European Region, only a few imported cases have been documented of both diseases in Hungary for years.This paper presents a case of a Hungarian woman, born in 1975, who received measles vaccination at age of 12 months and later at age of 11 years, according to her certificate of vaccination. In 2009, after arriving home from a vacation in Ireland, she developed acute measles infection with clinical symptoms. It was confirmed by the detection of measles specific IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies, and by detection of viral nucleic acid from throat swab in virus transport medium.Additionally, an outbreak occurred in December of 2011 among a family emigrated from Romania to Hungary. No new measles cases were diagnosed among the contact persons of neither the young Hungarian woman returning from Ireland, nor the family emigrated from Romania. This observation refers to the effectiveness of the Hungarian vaccination program.

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Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is a quite common but frequently asymptomatic, therefore undiagnosed condition. Genital HSV-2 infection may cause neonatal herpes, enhances HIV transmission and may play a role in infertility. To evaluate the prevalence of HSV-2 in Hungary we tested 2500 serum samples for the presence of anti-HSV-2 IgG by ELISA method. According to our results Hungary belongs to the low-infected countries, the HSV-2 seroprevalence grows with age and is significantly higher among women than in men. We also examined the serostatus of 512 pregnant women and 539 women attending infertility clinics. Results show that the HSV-2 prevalence is significantly higher among women attending infertility clinics and the seropositivity of pregnant women is similar to that of the general Hungarian women population with the same age.

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