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Frozen subject idioms can be classified into three, pragmatically based classes: evocatives, evaluatives, and diologic. These groups are characterized by diverse syntactic behaviour. In this paper, we provide evidence that the three classes represent separate degrees of subjectivity in the language, and that this property increases parallel to that of being situationally bound.

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The Late Cretaceous (Santonian) fish fauna of the Iharkút vertebrate site (Bakony Mountains, Hungary) is described here. The ichthyofauna includes the lepisosteid Atractosteus sp., the pycnodontid cf. Coelodus sp., Vidalamiinae indet., a non-vidalamiin Amiidae indet., Elopiformes indet., two indeterminate ellimmichthyiforms, cf. Salmoniformes indet., Acanthomorpha indet., at least one indeterminate teleostean, and numerous indeterminate actinopterygians (represented by teeth). Among these taxa, the Iharkút remains of Vidalamiinae and the suggested indeterminate Salmoniformes represent their first occurrence in the Late Cretaceous of Europe. The unidentifiable specimens may suggest the presence of further fish taxa. The gar remains described here further support the Atractosteus sp. affinity of the Iharkút form. Most of the Iharkút fishes are carnivorous, but durophagous taxa are also represented. Although chondrichthyan remains have not been identified in the Iharkút vertebrate material up to now, the ecological distribution of some local fish taxa presumes the possible vicinity of a marine–deltaic environment. Several Iharkút fish taxa are known from North American localities as well, suggesting that the Late Cretaceous European continental fish might have been more diverse and similar to that of North America than previously thought. The necessity of more intensive screen-washing at other European Late Cretaceous vertebrate sites is also emphasized.

Open access

Abstract

I examine the relationship between the internationalisation of family firms and innovation. After the review of the relevant literature, I group together the narrow research topics addressed in the literature, which largely confirm the positive relationship between the two categories. Moreover, I demonstrate a theoretical framework which, according to the literature, can be implemented to put socio-emotional welfare and entrepreneurial orientation, which are restraining the internationalisation of family firms, on a common path, so that they can contribute to enhancing the innovative and international performance of family firms in a mutually supportive way.

Open access

Abstract

The esport industry is emerging and constantly changing. The pandemic has had a significant impact on esport and its markets and has affected the whole ecosystem. The focus of this paper, besides esport, is simracing: due to the limitations on physical events, motorsports have had to convert their races to the digital world. The aims of the article are: (1) to identify the changes in the esport and simracing world and markets caused by the pandemic, (2) to examine the difficulties and challenges that the industry is facing, and (3) to explore the opportunities for the further development of the business. Our research methodology involved in-depth interviews with industry professionals from different backgrounds. The results show that esport and simracing need to become more economically sustainable, and changes are required in all related markets. This article identifies such opportunities. Despite the difficulties, esport will continue to be a major player in the digital world and in the world of sports.

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Bevezetés: A szépségiparban dolgozók szakmájuk által a szépség közvetítőivé válnak. Cél: A szerzők arra a kérdésre keresték a választ, hogy a szépségiparban dolgozók fokozott kockázattal rendelkeznek-e evés- és testképzavarok kialakulására. Módszerek: Az evészavarok vizsgálatára az Evési Attitűdök Teszt és az Evészavartünetek Súlyossági Skálája, míg a testkép vizsgálatára az Emberalakrajzok Teszt és az Evészavar Kérdőív testtel való elégedetlenség alskálája, valamint a Testi Attitűdök Teszt és a Testtel Kapcsolatos Befektetések Skálája szolgált. A kérdőíveket összesen 266 (18–26 éves) személy töltötte ki. Közülük 56 erdélyi és 59 magyarországi szépségipari dolgozó volt. A kontrollcsoportot 57 erdélyi és 54 magyarországi személy alkotta. Eredmények: A testsúlycsökkentő viselkedések közül a falásroham gyakoribb volt a szépségiparban dolgozóknál, mint a kontrollcsoportban. Az Evési Attitűdök Tesztben a küszöbértéket meghaladó esetek száma gyakoribb volt a szépségiparban dolgozóknál, mint a kontrollcsoportban. Következtetés: A klinikai és szubklinikai súlyosságú evészavarok gyakoribbnak bizonyultak a szépségiparban dolgozók csoportjában. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 665–670.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Szabolcs Bene
,
Péter J. Polgár
,
Márton Szűcs
,
Judit Márton
,
Eszter Szabó
, and
Ferenc Szabó

Abstract

Variance, covariance components, heritability, breeding values (BV) and genetic trends in calving interval (CI) of the Limousin population in Hungary were evaluated. A total of 3,008 CI data of 779 cows from three herds in 1996–2016 were processed. For influencing effects GLM method, for population genetic parameters and BV estimation BLUP animal model, for trend analyses linear regression was applied. The average CI obtained was 378.8 ± 3.1 days. The variance distribution components of the phenotype were as follow: age of cow at calving 34.30%, season of calving 26.09%, year of calving 23.00%, sire 7.45%, herd 3.23%, sex of calf 0.33% and type of calving 0.30%. The heritability of CI proved to be low (h2 d = 0.04 ± 0.02 and 0.03 ± 0.02; h2 m = 0.01 ± 0.02). The repeatability was low (R = 0.03 ± 0.02). Based on the phenotypic trend calculation, the CI of cows decreased by an average of 0.60 days per year (R 2 = 0.19; P < 0.05). In case of genetic trend calculation, the average BV of sires in CI increased 0.07 and 0.17 days per year (R 2 = 0.23 and 0.27; P < 0.05).

Open access

Abstract

Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) is a widely used method in sports and rehabilitation therapies to simulate physical exercise. EMS treatment via skeletal muscle activity improves the cardiovascular functions and the overall physical condition of the patients. However, the cardioprotective effect of EMS has not been proven so far, therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential cardiac conditioning effect of EMS in an animal model. Low-frequency 35-min EMS was applied to the gastrocnemius muscle of male Wistar rats for three consecutive days. Their isolated hearts were then subjected to 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. At the end of reperfusion cardiac specific creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme release and myocardial infarct size were determined. Additionally, skeletal muscle-driven myokine expression and release were also assessed. Phosphorylation of cardioprotective signaling pathway members AKT, ERK1/2, and STAT3 proteins were also measured. EMS significantly attenuated cardiac LDH and CK-MB enzyme activities in the coronary effluents at the end of the ex vivo reperfusion. EMS treatment considerably altered the myokine content of the stimulated gastrocnemius muscle without altering circulating myokine levels in the serum. Additionally, phosphorylation of cardiac AKT, ERK1/2, and STAT3 was not significantly different in the two groups. Despite the lack of significant infarct size reduction, the EMS treatment seems to influence the course of cellular damage due to ischemia/reperfusion and favorably modifies skeletal muscle myokine expressions. Our results suggest that EMS may have a protective effect on the myocardium, however, further optimization is required.

Open access
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Eszter Danka
,
Gábor Tamás Pintér
,
Márton Keresztúri
, and
György Szabó

Absztrakt:

A krónikus, nem bakteriális multicentrikus osteomyelitis ritka steril gyulladásos csontelváltozás, amely a legtöbbször a hosszú csöves csontokat érinti, de létrejöhet más csontokban is. A mandibulában az esetek 1,5–3%-ában fordul elő. A maxillofacialis sebészeti irodalomban az elnevezéssel kapcsolatban nincs egységes álláspont, bizonyos fokú konfúzió észlelhető. A dolgozat célja bemutatni a betegséget és az ezzel kapcsolatos kutatásokat, információkat az arc-állcsont sebészetre koncentrálva. Két esetet retrospektíve tárgyalnak, mindkettőnek a mandibulájában többszörös elváltozás volt. Klinikailag, radiológiailag, hisztológiailag nem bakteriális eredetű idült, többgócú csontgyulladást lehetett megállapítani. A betegség mindkét esetben több évig tartott. A dolgozat egy 17 és egy 43 éves nő kapcsán tárgyalja a krónikus, nem bakteriális, multicentrikus recidiváló osteomyelitis diagnosztikus kritériumait: állcsontfájdalom és -duzzanat, radiológiailag többszöri gyulladásos elváltozás. A komputertomográfos vizsgálat az érintett mandibularész típusos expanzióját, a csontvelő sclerosisát, kis gócokban rosszul meghatározható felritkulásokat és a periosteum lamelláris reakcióját mutatta. Mindkét beteg esetében hosszú eredménytelen antibiotikus kezelés történt, a gyulladás többszöri fellángolásával. A megfelelő kezelés után, amely nonszteroid gyulladáscsökkentőkből, majd szteroidból állt, hosszú fájdalom- és gyulladásmentes időszak következett be. A krónikus, többgócú, nem bakteriális eredetű osteomyelitis ritkán fordul elő az állcsontokban, de valószínű, hogy korrekt diagnózis esetén az irodalomban leírtaknál gyakoribb lehet. A tipikus ismétlődő fájdalom és duzzanat, a hosszadalmas lefolyás a radiológiai ismérvekkel együtt megadja a kórismét, és a kezelésben elkerülhető lehet az eredménytelen antibiotikus terápia és a többszöri biopszia. A megfelelő gyógymód: a nonszteroid gyulladáscsökkentők vagy szteroidok, minimáldózisú fenntartó kezeléssel. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(43): 1761–1766.

Open access

An in vitro model has been developed for study of cariogenic potential of different Candida species. Slices were prepared from the root of extracted healthy teeth. These disks were covered with inert material, only the central hole, i.e. the root canal dentin surface remained uncovered. These preparates with free root dentin surfaces were incubated in Sabouraud medium in the presence of six-six Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida inconspicua and Candida norvegensis strains. The calcium release was detected for 15 days. Two types of release could be distinguished. C. albicans deliberated calcium more aggressively (type “A” curve), while other Candidas were characterized by less expressed calcium releasing capacity (type “B” curve). Curves type “A” and “B” were divided into four steps in order to characterize more precisely the different dynamics of calcium release. Analyses of the different steps also suggested the more aggressive behaviour of C. albicans. Our results indicate that in addition to cariogenic role of different bacteria, fungi may also actively take part in the dentinal caries progress.

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Studies involving morphological description with both dominant (RAPD) and codominant (SSR, isoenzyme) molecular markers were made on 28 maize inbred lines of known genetic background with a final aim of prediction of heterosis. The genetic distance and degree of relationship between the lines was determined using cluster analysis. Only a very limited extent of allele polymorphism could be detected in isoenzyme analyses as the 28 lines formed only 16 gel electrophoretic groups, indicating that certain lines had identical isoenzyme patterns. On the basis of RAPD and gene-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers, however, all the lines could be distinguished from each other. When the lines were grouped according to genetic background it was found that although the individual marker systems only partially reflected the actual relationships between the lines, a joint processing of the data, supplemented with morphological data, revealed a close correlation between the groups formed on the dendrogram and the genetic background.

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