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A multiple simple adenoma causing severe distortion of the tail base was identified in the cloacal scent gland of a female California Kingsnake (Lampropeltis getulus californiae). In addition to the normal epithelial layer of the gland and the skin, the tumour cells in the glandular epithelium also showed cross immunereactivity with humanised anti-cytokeratin antibody. This is the first description of an adenoma in the scent gland of a reptile species. Neither epithelial nor mesenchymal tumours arising from the scent gland of reptiles have been reported previously. This report also highlights the possible use of humanised antibodies on reptile species for the fast, reliable and specific differential diagnosis of tumours.

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The authors describe a solitary adenoma in a 5.5-year-old female Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The tumour was partially blocking the lumen of the proventriculus and filled it almost completely. Decreased passage of food towards the gizzard and the intestines developed in the bird as result of the obstruction, which periodically hindered the passage, leading to slow emaciation. An epithelial tumour composed of irregular glandular acini was diagnosed by histological examination. Immunohistochemical reaction with pancytokeratin showed a positive cytoplasmic reaction both in the neoplastic and the normal glandular structures.

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A heterotopic in situ complex adenocarcinoma developing on the hindlimb is reported for the first time from an Asian Leaf Turtle (Cyclemys dentata). The tumour mechanically hampered the movement of the animal. The turtle refused to eat and consequently developed a poor condition. Histopathology of the tumour revealed all characteristics of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma originating from apocrine gland-like tissue: the irregular, tubular structures varying in size were generally lined by two to four layers of cuboidal to columnar neoplastic epithelial cells. Claudin-5, pancytokeratin, cytokeratin, vimentin, α-SMA and Ki-67 immunohistochemical antibodies were employed for characterising the tumour. The diagnosis was a complex adenocarcinoma originating from apocrine gland-like tissue in a turtle.

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Kidney samples from chickens diagnosed with acute nephritis and gout were subjected to histological and electron microscopic examination. The investigations revealed cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the tubular epithelial cells containing round virions of about 30 nm in diameter. Since avian nephritis virus (ANV) is known as a potential causative agent of the so-called baby chick nephropathy, an RT-PCR assay was developed for the molecular detection of ANV-specific nucleic acid in the specimen. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by direct sequencing of the amplicon obtained in the reaction. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product showed 92% identity with the reference ANV sequence deposited in the GenBank database. After having been validated on some other suspicious cases of avian nephritis, the PCR method described in this study can be a potential tool for routine diagnostic examination of samples submitted from cases of gout and nephropathy in chickens.

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The authors describe a case of synchronously occurring (double) tumours, i.e. primary hepatocellular carcinoma and aortic body chemodectoma in a 14-year-old mixed-breed male dog. The tumours were identified during necropsy, following euthanasia. In the last months of its life, the dog showed signs of weakness, anorexia, apathy, inactivity, and abdominal palpation elicited a painful reaction. The primary liver cancer emerged in the left lateral lobe without evidence of any distant metastases. Histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations revealed a well-differentiated, trabecular, claudin-7-, claudin-5- and pancytokeratin-negative hepatocellular carcinoma. The Ki-67 proliferation index was 33%. During necropsy, a synchronously occurring benign, grade I type aortic body chemodectoma was also detected in the dog. This neuroendocrine tumour showed chromogranin-, synaptophysin-, neuron-specific enolase- and S100 protein-positivity, and the Ki-67 proliferation index was 2%. The authors believe that this is the first description of synchronously occurring hepatocellular carcinoma and aortic body chemodectoma in a dog.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: János Gál, Míra Mándoki, Endre Sós, Péter Kertész, Viktória Koroknai, Krisztián Bányai, and Szilvia L. Farkas

A male kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) originating from a zoo facility was delivered for post mortem evaluation in Hungary. Acute lobar pneumonia with histopathologic changes resembling an adenovirus (AdV) infection was detected by light microscopic examination. The presence of an AdV was confirmed by obtaining partial sequence data from the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase. Although the exact taxonomic position of this novel marsupial origin virus could not be determined, pairwise identity analyses and phylogenetic calculations revealed that it is distantly related to other members in the family Adenoviridae.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Elena Palade, Nóra Biró, Mihály Dobos-Kovács, Zoltán Demeter, Míra Mándoki, and Miklós Rusvai

From a total of 1819 great tits ( Parus major ) ringed in 2007 in Pilis Mountains, Hungary, 15 birds presented nodular proliferative lesions on different areas of the head and eyelids, suggesting a poxvirus infection. Three birds were submitted for analysis. The presence of avipoxvirus infection was confirmed by histopathology, electron microscopy (EM) and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technique. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 428 base pairs (bp) fragment of the viral 4b core protein gene revealed 100% identity between two of the Hungarian isolates (PM9 HUN, PM33 HUN) and two great tit poxvirus strains isolated in Norway in 1973 (GTV A256, GTV A311). The third Hungarian isolate (PM34 HUN) was more closely related to a different Norwegian isolate (GTVA310) than to the Hungarian isolates. The nucleotide sequence analysis of a shorter fragment of the viral 4b core protein (227 bp) gene revealed 100% identity between the Hungarian isolates, the same Norwegian isolates and a great tit poxvirus strain detected in Austria in 2007.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Anna Szilasi, Lilla Dénes, Eszter Krikó, Caoimhe Murray, Míra Mándoki, and Gyula Balka

Abstract

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses affecting felid species worldwide. A study was performed over a period of 5 months in Ireland with the aim to get an updated and more realistic prevalence of these retroviruses. A total of 183 EDTA-anticoagulated whole-blood samples were collected from cats distributed between 10 clinics. The samples were tested using both point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Basic clinical data and vaccination history were also recorded for the sampled cats. The results of ELISA tests showed a prevalence of 10.4 and 3.3% for FIV and FeLV, respectively, and an apparent prevalence of 9.3% for FIV and 11.6% for FeLV with PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial polymerase (pol) gene sequences obtained from 8 FIV-positive strains showed that all but one of the Irish strains belonged to FIV subtype A, and one to subtype B. The overall mean genetic similarity between the analysed strains was 91.15%.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: József Lehel, János Gál, Sándor Faragó, Erzsébet Berta, Emese Andrásofszky, Sándor Fekete, Míra Mándoki, Péter Budai, Éva Kormos, and Miklós Marosán

Mercury and lead concentrations were measured in the livers of cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), an aquatic bird species living and nesting in the special, highly protected nature conservation area of Kis-Balaton, Hungary. The measurements of metal concentrations were performed by atomic absorption spectrometry using the cold vapour method for mercury and the electrothermal method for lead. Mercury concentrations in the livers were significantly higher in the adult population (4.479 ± 3.336 mg/kg dry matter, DM) than in the juvenile birds (2.682 ± 2.087 mg/kg DM), indicating an increase of bioaccumulation with age. A similar pattern was not observed for lead. There were no statistical differences between males and females either in mercury or in lead concentrations. The average levels of mercury (3.580 ± 2.906 mg/kg DM) and lead (0.746 ± 0.499 mg/kg DM) were statistically different in the liver. No correlation was found between the concentrations of the two heavy metals. Recently, the wild birds have been chronically exposed to subtoxic amounts of metals which have a tendency to accumulate especially in the soft tissues.

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