This paper presents an overview of the general model of scientific growth proposed by D. J. de Solla Price. Firstly, the formulation
of the model is examined using the seminal sources. Later, forerunners, offshoots and criticisms to the model are discussed.
Finally, an integrative review using retrieved empirical studies exposes the complexity and diversity of models of scientific
growth and the absence of consistent patterns.
This article analyses scientific growth time series using data for Spanish doctoral theses from 1848 to 2009, retrieved from national databases and an in-depth archive search. Data are classified into subseries by historical periods. The analytical techniques employed range from visual analysis of deterministic graphs to curve-fitting with exponential smoothing and AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average models. Forecasts are made using the best model. The main finding is that Spanish output of doctoral theses appears to fit a quasi-logistic growth model in line with Price's predictions. An additional control variable termed year-on-year General Welfare is shown to modulate scientific growth, especially in the historical period from 1899 to 1939.
High-performance thin-layer chromatography has been used to follow the synthesis of some quinoxalinone derivatives by biocatalysis in a one-pot reaction, as an alternative route to the poor
reaction. The progress of the one-pot reactions can be followed by HPTLC without previous isolation of the different intermediates arising from them. Biocatalytic synthesis of quinoxalinone derivatives leads to an irreversible reaction which gives a single product of high purity and yields in excess of 90–95%.
The PACTE Group is carrying out empirical-experimental research into translation competence and its acquisition in written translation. The aim of this article is to present the results obtained for the translation competence indicator ‘Acceptability’ of translation products and the variable “Decision-making” in an experiment involving 35 expert translators and 24 foreign-language teachers. After a presentation of PACTE’s theoretical model of translation competence, the design of our research project is described (hypothesis, experimental universe and sample, variables, data collection instruments) followed by the results obtained for the indicator ‘Acceptability’ of subjects’ translations and, finally, the results obtained for the variable “Decision-making” are presented. The variable “Decision-making” evidences decisions made during the translation process which involve the use of automatic and non-automatic cognitive resources (internal support) and the use of different sources of documentation (external support). The indicators used to measure this variable are ‘Sequences of Actions’ and ‘Acceptability’. The results obtained shed light on the strategic and instrumental sub-competences of translation competence.
The recent growth of Internet use has led to an increase of potentially problematic behaviors that can be engaged online, such as online gambling or Internet gaming. The aim of this study is to better conceptualize Internet gaming disorder (IGD) by comparing it with gambling disorder (GD) patients who only gamble online (online GD).
A total of 288 adult patients (261 online GD and 27 IGD) completed self-reported questionnaires for exploring psychopathological symptoms, food addiction (FA), and personality traits.
Both clinical groups presented higher psychopathological scores and less functional personality traits when compared with a normative Spanish population. However, when comparing IGD to online GD, some singularities emerged. First, patients with IGD were younger, more likely single and unemployed, and they also presented lower age of disorder onset. In addition, they displayed lower somatization and depressive scores together with lower prevalence of tobacco use but higher FA scores and higher mean body mass index. Finally, they presented lower novelty seeking and persistence traits.
GD is fully recognized as a behavioral addiction, but IGD has been included in the Appendix of DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction that needs further study. Our findings suggest that IGD and online GD patients share some emotional distress and personality traits, but patients with IGD also display some differential characteristics, namely younger age, lower novelty seeking scores and higher BMI, and FA scores.
IGD presents some characteristics that are not extensive to online GD. These specificities have potential clinical implications and they need to be further studied.
Mental disorders with high levels of impulsivity such as bulimic spectrum eating disorders (BSED) and gambling disorder (GD) are associated with high risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of the present study was to identify the common and differential vulnerability factors behind suicide attempts in a sample of patients with BSED compared to patients with GD.
A total of 6,077 adults who sought treatment and met criteria either for BSED (n = 2,391) or GD (n = 3,686) were assessed at a specialized hospital unit. Personality traits, psychopathological symptomatology, lifetime history of suicide attempts and socio-demographic variables were evaluated.
The prevalence of suicide attempts was higher for BSED patients (26.2%) compared to GD patients (7.1%) being anorexia nervosa (Binge/Purge type) and bulimia nervosa the most affected subtypes. In the predictive model, the transdiagnostic vulnerability factors with the highest contribution to the risk of suicidal behavior both in BSED and GD were unemployment, early age of onset of the disorder, worse psychopathological state, and self-transcendence personality trait. However, specific risk factors for suicidal acts were identified in each disorder: longer duration of the disorder, lower education levels and reward dependence were exclusively associated with BSED while female gender, older age, and higher harm avoidance were associated with GD.
Patients with GD and BSED share certain vulnerability factors although certain factors are exclusive to each disorder.
Interventions need to pay special attention to both common and specific vulnerability factors to mitigate the risk of suicidal acts in these disorders.
Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory has been widely applied to different clinical populations, but few studies have reported empirical evidence based on this theory for treatment outcomes in patients with gambling disorder (GD) and compulsive buying (CB). The aims of this study were to explore the association between clinical variables and personality traits with reward and punishment sensitivity (RPS) levels in women (n = 88) who met diagnostic criteria for GD (n = 61) and CB (n = 27), and to determine the predictive capacity of RPS for primary short-term outcomes in a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention.
The CBT intervention consisted of 12 weekly sessions. Data on patients’ personality traits, RPS levels, psychopathology, sociodemographic factors, GD, and CB behavior were used in our analysis.
High RPS levels were associated with higher psychopathology in both CB and GD, and were a risk factor for dropout in the CB group. In the GD group, higher reward sensitivity scores increased the risk of dropout.
Discussion and conclusions
Our findings suggest that both sensitivity to reward and sensitivity to punishment independently condition patients’ response to treatment for behavioral addictions. The authors uphold that CBT interventions for such addictions could potentially be enhanced by taking RPS into consideration.
The main aim of this study was to analyze and describe the clinical characteristics and shared personality traits in different impulsivity–compulsivity spectrum disorders: substance use disorders (SUD), gambling disorder (GD), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The specific aims were to compare personality differences among individuals with pure SUD, BN with and without SUD, and GD with and without SUD. In addition, we assessed the differential predictive capacity of clinical and personality variables in relation to diagnostic subtype.
The sample comprised 998 subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria: 101 patients were diagnosed with SUD, 482 with GD, 359 with BN, 11 with GD + SUD, and 45 patients with BN + SUD. Various assessment instruments were administered, as well as other clinical measures, to evaluate their predictive capacity.
Marked differences in personality traits were observed between groups. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperation, and self-transcendence best differentiated the groups. Notably, novelty seeking was significantly higher in the two dual pathology subgroups. Patients with dual pathology showed the most dysfunctional personality profiles.
Discussion and conclusion
Our results indicate the existence of shared dysfunctional personality traits among the groups studied, especially in novelty seeking and self-directedness.
Pathological buying (PB) is a behavioral addiction that presents comorbidity with several psychiatric disorders. Despite the increase in the prevalence estimates of PB, relatively few PB instruments have been developed. Our aim was to assess the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the pathological buying screener (PBS) and to explore the associations between PB, psychopathology, and personality traits.
A total of 511 participants, including gambling disorder (GD) and eating disorder (ED) patients diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria, as well as healthy controls (HCs), took part in the study.
Higher PB prevalence was obtained in ED patients than in the other two study groups (ED 12.5% vs. 1.3% HC and 2.7% GD). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) verified the 13-item structure of the PBS, and indexes of convergent and discriminant capacity were estimated. CFA confirmed the structure in two factors (excessive buying behavior and loss of control) with excellent internal consistency (α = .92 and .86, respectively). Good convergent capacity was obtained with external psychopathology and personality measures (positive correlations with novelty seeking and negative associations with self-directedness and harm avoidance were found). Good discriminative capacity to differentiate between the study groups was obtained.
Discussion and conclusions
This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the Spanish adaptation of the PBS. Female sex, higher impulsivity, and higher psychopathology were associated with PB.
Gambling disorder (GD) presents high rates of suicidality. The combined influences of emotion dysregulation and trait impulsivity are crucially important (albeit understudied) for developing strategies to treat GD and prevent suicide attempts. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between trait impulsivity, emotion dysregulation, and the dispositional use of emotion regulation (ER) strategies with suicidal ideation and psychopathological symptom severity in GD.
The sample composed of 249 patients with GD (166 with suicidal ideation) who underwent face-to-face clinical interviews and completed questionnaires to assess psychopathological symptoms, impulsive traits, and ER.
Patients with GD who presented suicidal ideation were older and had a later age of GD onset and higher GD severity. Analyses of variance showed higher comorbid symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and trait impulsivity in patients with suicidal ideation. Still, no significant differences were found in the use of ER strategies. SEM analysis revealed that a worse psychopathological state directly predicted suicidal ideation and that both emotion dysregulation and GD severity indirectly increased the risk of suicidal ideation through this state. High trait impulsivity predicted GD severity. Finally, a history of suicide attempts was directly predicted by suicidal ideation.
Patients with GD are at risk of presenting suicidal behaviors. The results of this study revealed the importance of comorbid psychopathology in the occurrence of suicidal ideation and the indirect effect of trait impulsivity and emotion dysregulation on suicidality. Thus, suicidal rates in GD could possibly be reduced by specifically targeting these domains during treatment.