A gold hoard was discovered in 2005 on the Late Bronze Age hilltop settlement at Várvölgy. The hoard contained gold bands for adorning textiles, spirals and a pair of lockrings with passementerie decoration. An earlier gold hoard found in 1926 (Hoard 1) likewise contained passementerie adornments, some of which had most likely been lockrings. Passementerie jewellery first appeared in the Carpathian Basin, whence they spread to the neighbouring regions.
In this paper I prove that the 20–30 cm long, tapered iron sticks frequently occurring in Pannonia in the 4th century were not pin-beaters but manual distaffs used in spinning. Due to climate change the water level of Lake Balaton increased in the late imperial period. For the protection of lakeside settlements and plough-lands Emperor Galerius opened the Sió Canal, by which, however, he could only prevent the further rise of the water level. The monumental theory assuming a significant expansion of agricultural lands and a continuous exportation of grain surpluses does not stand up.
Authors:Ralf Ignatius, Robert Neuber, Heike Kietzmann, Christiane Berg, Thilo Wenzel, Jörg Fuhrmann and Michael Müller
This study aimed at evaluating in outpatients an algorithm for the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI), i.e., enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) detecting bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B, followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses of samples with discordant EIA results.
In total, 9802 examinations of stool samples by GDH and toxin EIAs performed in 7263 outpatients and 488 inpatients were analyzed retrospectively. Samples with discordant EIA results had been tested by a commercially available PCR assay detecting genes of the C. difficile-specific triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and toxin B (tcdB).
Concordant EIA results (686 C. difficile-positive, 8121 negative) were observed for 8807 (89.8%; 95% CI, 89.2–90.4%) samples. Of 958 samples with discordant EIA results, 895 were analyzed using PCR and 580 of 854 GDH-positive/borderline, toxin-negative samples (67.9%; 95% CI, 64.7–71.0%) were positive for tpi and tcdB, while 274 samples (32.1%; 95% CI, 29.0–35.3%) were tcdB-negative. In contrast, 35 of 41 GDH-negative, toxin-positive/borderline samples (85.4%; 95% CI, 71.2–93.5%) were tcdB-negative. Still, 6 samples (14.6%; 95% CI, 6.5–28.8%) yielded positive PCR results for both genes.
In conclusion, around 90% of the samples were analyzed appropriately by only applying EIAs. Approximately one third of the PCR-analyzed samples were tcdB-negative; thus, patients most likely did not require CDI treatment.