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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
János Madarász
,
Ana Brăileanu
,
Maria Crişan
,
Malina Răileanu
, and
György Pokol

Abstract  

Thermal decomposition of an amorphous precursor for S-doped titania (TiO2) nanopowders, prepared by controlled sol–gel hydrolysis–condensation of titanium(IV) tetraethoxide and thiourea in aqueous ethanol, has been studied up to 800 °C in flowing air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis coupled online with quadrupole mass spectrometer (TG/DTA-MS) and FTIR spectrometric gas cell (TG-FTIR) have been applied for analysis of released gases (EGA) and their evolution dynamics in order to explore and simulate thermal annealing processes of fabrication techniques of the aimed S:TiO2 photocatalysts with photocatalytic activities under visible light. The precursor sample prepared with thiourea, released first water endothermically from room temperature to 190 °C, carbonyl sulfide (COS) from 120 to 240 °C in two stages, ammonia (NH3) from 170 to 350 °C in three steps, and organic mater (probably ether and ethylene) between 140 and 230 °C. The evolution of CO2, H2O and SO2, as oxidation products, occurs between 180 and 240 °C, accompanied by exothermic DTA peaks at 190 and 235 °C. Some small mass gain occurs before the following exothermic heat effect at 500 °C, which is probably due to the simultaneous burning out of residual carbonaceous and sulphureous species, and transformation of amorphous titania into anatase. The oxidative process is accompanied by evolution of CO2 and SO2. Anatase, which formed also in the exothermic peak at 500 °C, mainly keeps its structure, since only 10% of rutile formation is detected below or at 800 °C by XRD. Meanwhile, from 500 °C, a final burning off organics is also indicated by continuous CO2 evolution and small exothermic effects.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Maria Crişan
,
Ana Brăileanu
,
D. Crişan
,
Mălina Răileanu
,
N. Drăgan
,
Diana Mardare
,
V. Teodorescu
,
Adelina Ianculescu
,
Ruxandra Bîrjega
, and
M. Dumitru

Abstract  

Among the great number of sol-gel materials prepared, TiO2 holds one of the most important places due to its photocatalytic properties, both in the case of powders and coatings. Impurity doping is one of the typical approaches to extend the spectral response of a wide band gap semiconductor to visible light. This work has studied some un-doped and Pd-doped sol-gel TiO2 nanopowders, presenting various surface morphologies and structures. The obtained powders have been embedded in vitreous TiO2 matrices and the corresponding coatings have been prepared by dipping procedure, on glass substrates. The relationship between the synthesis conditions and the properties of titania nanosized materials, such as thermal stability, phase composition, crystallinity, morphology and size of particles, and the influence of dopant was investigated. The influence of Pd on TiO2 crystallization both for supported and unsupported materials was studied (lattice parameters, crystallite sizes, internal strains). The hydrophilic properties of the films were also connected with their structure, composition and surface morphology. The methods used for the characterization of the materials have been: simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy (TEM, SAED) and AFM.

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