Patients suffering from mental disorders and especially substance-use disorders (SUDs) are often stigmatized by both lay individuals and health professionals, which may lead to poorer treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of stigma against alcohol and drug users among lay respondents and actors of healthcare.
Materials and methods
An online questionnaire was filled out by a total of 148 participants from three subgroups: (a) 25 addictology professionals, (b) 55 emergency care professionals, and (c) 68 lay individuals outside healthcare. The questionnaire contained standardized scales measuring the severity of substance use, authoritarianism, and own items assessing demographics, attitude towards substance users, and substance-related knowledge.
A more accepting attitude towards drug users was explained by the respondents’ own substance use (β = 4.52, p < .01) and knowledge in addictology (β = 2.22, p = .05). Repeated encounters with substance users only showed connection with destigmatization in case of positive experiences. Emergency care professionals were characterized by the most stigmatizing attitude towards substance users.
Our results partially support Allport’s contact hypothesis. We emphasize the need of a continuous sensitizing program targeting emergency care professionals in order to change their attitude towards SUD patients.
In the past decade, novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) gained a significant role on the contemporary drug scene. Synthetic cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids are the most common NPSs both in Hungary and worldwide. This study aims to provide a literature review on the Hungarian characteristics related to the use of these NPSs.
Materials and methods
Available literature regarding synthetic cathinone and cannabinoid use in Hungary was overviewed and structured into (a) epidemiological studies, (b) studies on the subjective and somatic effects, and (c) studies on toxicity and adverse consequences. Published papers between 2007 and 2017 were identified using PubMed and MATARKA search engines.
One hundred twenty-six papers were identified and after exclusion, 54 papers remained for in-depth analysis. Most of the reviewed studies were providing epidemiological information regarding the NPSs of our interest. Hungarian prevalence rates were not higher than the European averages. Identified risks of these NPSs consisted of drug-induced psychosis, further severe psychiatric symptoms, and fatal overdose. Injecting of cathinones was also a commonly reported phenomenon, mostly among clients of needle-exchange programs.
Based on the reviewed body of research, necessary information is available to plan effective prevention and intervention programs and establishes specific therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of NPS users.
Authors:Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Róbert Urbán, Gábor Varga, Marc N. Potenza, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna Szekely, Borbála Paksi, Bernadette Kun, Judit Farkas, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, and Zsolt Demetrovics
Background and aims
Due to its important role in both healthy groups and those with physical, mental and behavioral disorders, impulsivity is a widely researched construct. Among various self-report questionnaires of impulsivity, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale is arguably the most frequently used measure. Despite its international use, inconsistencies in the suggested factor structure of its latest version, the BIS-11, have been observed repeatedly in different samples. The goal of the present study was therefore to test the factor structure of the BIS-11 in several samples.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on two representative samples of Hungarian adults (N = 2,457; N = 2,040) and a college sample (N = 765).
Analyses did not confirm the original model of the measure in any of the samples. Based on explorative factor analyses, an alternative three-factor model (cognitive impulsivity; behavioral impulsivity; and impatience/restlessness) of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale is suggested. The pattern of the associations between the three factors and aggression, exercise, smoking, alcohol use, and psychological distress supports the construct validity of this new model.
The new measurement model of impulsivity was confirmed in two independent samples. However, it requires further cross-cultural validation to clarify the content of self-reported impulsivity in both clinical and nonclinical samples.