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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: M. Rajabi Hashjin, M.H. Fotokian, M. Agahee Sarbrzeh, M. Mohammadi and D. Talei

Knowledge of morpho-protein patterns of genetic diversity improves the efficiency of germplasm conservation and development. The objective of present study was to evaluate 116 genotypes of Triticum turgidum from seven countries in terms of morphological traits and seed protein banding patterns. The results showed highly significant differences among the genotypes for the traits. The correlation between grain yield and weight per spike was significant and positive, while the correlation between days to heading, length of peduncle and plant height was significant and negative. The factor analysis classified the traits in to four main groups which accounted for 74.4% of the total variability. Sixteen allelic compositions were identified in the genotypes for high molecular weight glutenin subunits. The three alleles were present at the Glu-A1 locus and 8 alleles at Glu-B1. The null allele was observed more frequently than the 1 and 2 alleles. Two alleles, namely 17 + 18 and 20, represented more frequent alleles at Glu-B1 locus. The genetic variability in Glu-A1and Glu-B1 loci were 0.42 and 0.81, respectively. The cluster analysis based on morphological traits and HMW-GS clustered the genotypes in to six and seven groups, respectively. The results indicated the presence of high genetic variability among the genotypes. Our findings suggest that the plants belong to different clusters can be used for hybridization to generate useful recombinants in the segregating generations, the genetics and breeding programs for improvement of durum wheat.

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Behavioral disturbances are observed in most patients suffering from diabetes. According to some evidence, pro-inflammatory cytokines have a key role both in diabetes and behavioral disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of loganin, as a bioflavonoid, was investigated on pro-inflammatory cytokines and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Depression- and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by forced swimming test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM), and open field test (OFT), respectively. Body weight was also measured before the interventions and after the experiments in all groups. Our findings show that loganin-treated animals had significantly lower serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α compared with the diabetic group. In the EPM test, loganin treatment significantly increased the percentage of the open arm time and open arm entries. Moreover, loganin treatment significantly decreased the grooming time and restored distance traveled and center crossing in the OFT. However, it decreased immobility time in the FST. Loganin treatment also significantly restored body weight gain and attenuated blood glucose changes in the diabetic rats. These results indicate that loganin possibly alleviates depression- and anxiety-like behaviors associated with diabetes through lowering the blood glucose and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. More research is required to show the exact mechanism of antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of loganin in diabetes.

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Behavioral disturbances are observed in most patients suffering from diabetes. According to some evidence, pro-inflammatory cytokines have a key role both in diabetes and behavioral disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of loganin, as a bioflavonoid, was investigated on pro-inflammatory cytokines and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Depression- and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by forced swimming test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM), and open field test (OFT), respectively. Body weight was also measured before the interventions and after the experiments in all groups. Our findings show that loganin-treated animals had significantly lower serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α compared with the diabetic group. In the EPM test, loganin treatment significantly increased the percentage of the open arm time and open arm entries. Moreover, loganin treatment significantly decreased the grooming time and restored distance traveled and center crossing in the OFT. However, it decreased immobility time in the FST. Loganin treatment also significantly restored body weight gain and attenuated blood glucose changes in the diabetic rats. These results indicate that loganin possibly alleviates depression- and anxiety-like behaviors associated with diabetes through lowering the blood glucose and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. More research is required to show the exact mechanism of antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of loganin in diabetes.

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