Solvent extraction of tetravalent thorium and trivalent europium ions from nitrate media into dichloromethane solution of
triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) has been studied. The extractant was shown to be more efficient for europium than for thorium.
A conventional log-log analysis reveals that the extraction of both metal nitrates takes place via the formation of the species
with 1 : 2 metal to ligand ratio. Thermodynamic parameters i.e., ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° of the extraction process using 1,2-dichloroethane as diluent have been calculated based on the influence of the temperature
on extraction equilibria in the range 293-313 K. While the extraction of europium is controlled by enthalpy changes, the extraction
of thorium is an endothermic process and is driven by entropy changes. A comparison of these data with those obtained for
the extraction of europium and thorium nitrates by two other related phosphorylated ligands, tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and diphenyl-N,N-dimethylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (DФDMCMPO), indicates that DФDMCMPO coordinates presumably as a chelating ligand.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been reported to be linked with diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Adiponectin (ADN), an adipocytokine secreted from adipose tissue, is involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity, energy homeostasis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of ADN on passive avoidance memory in animal model of sporadic AD (sAD). On days 1 and 3 after cannulation, rats received intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (3 mg/kg). Thirty minutes before the learning process, animals received saline or ADN in different doses (6, 60, and 600 µg). The step-through latency (STL) and total time spent in the dark compartment (TDC) were recorded and analyzed. In STZ-treated rats, STL was significantly decreased, whereas TDC showed a dramatic increase. In ADN-treated rats, STL was significantly increased (P < 0.01) in all treatment doses. The number of entries was decreased in all applied doses; however, TDC was reduced only by the application of 6 ng of ADN (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that ADN is useful to improve the STZ-induced memory impairment. This study showed, for the first time, that icv administration of ADN could improve the memory acquisition in animal model of sAD.
Incineration studies of plutonium were carried out at the Synchrophasotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, using proton beams with energies of 0.53 GeV and 1.0 GeV. Solid lead targets (8 cm in diameter and 20 cm long) were surrounded with 6 cm thick paraffin as neutron moderator and then irradiated. The transmutation of 239 Pu and the associated production of fission products 91 Sr, 92 Sr, 97 Zr, 99 Mo, 103 Ru, 105 Ru, 129 Sb, 132 Te, 133 I, 135 I and 143 Ce were studied in the present work. The plutonium samples (each 449 mg) were placed on the outer surface of moderator. For 1.0 GeV proton beam, the fission rate of 239 Pu is 0.0032 atoms per proton in one gram plutonium samples, for 0.53 GeV proton, this value is 0.0022. The experimental uncertainty is about 15%. The experiments are compared to two theoretical model calculations with moderate success, using the Dubna Cascade Model (CEM) and the LAHET code. The practical incineration rate of 239 Pu is very high. For example: if one uses 10 mA, 1 GeV proton beams under the same (fictive) experimental conditions, the incineration rate of 239 Pu via fission is 3 mg out of the 449 mg sample per day. For 0.53 GeV protons the corresponding rate is 2 mg per day.
An extended U/Pb-assembly was irradiated with an extracted beam of 2.52 GeV deuterons from the Nuclotron accelerator of the
Laboratory of High Energies within the JINR in Dubna, Russia. The lay-out of this experiment and first results are reported.
The Pb-target (diameter 8.4 cm, length 45.6 cm) is surrounded by a natU-blanket (206.4 kg) and used for transmutation studies of hermetically sealed radioactive samples of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu and 239Pu. Estimates of transmutation rates were obtained as result of measurements of gamma-activities of the samples. Information
about the spatial and energy distribution of neutrons in the volume of the lead target and the uranium blanket was obtained
with sets of activation threshold detectors (Al, Y and Au) and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). An electronic
3He neutron detector was tested on-line. A comparison of experimental data with theoretical model calculations using the MCNPX
program was performed yielding satisfactory results.