Antifungal effect of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. & Hohen. in Boiss. and Prangos uechtritzii Boiss. Hawsskn decoctions was tested against Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis and Penicillium digitatum. Of the 2 substances tested Pr. uechtritzii, being present at 75 to 80% concentration in potato dextrose agar, partly inhibited growth of A. alternata, B. cinerea and P. digitatum. Pr. uechtritzii had higher antifungal effect than M. myrtifolia on mycelial growth during incubation. M. myrtifolia partly affected mycelial growth of A. alternata and A. niger at the beginning of incubation. But the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum was not inhibited by M. myrtifolia concentrations during incubation. Also, Pr. uechtritzii did not have any affect on mycelial growth of A. niger during incubation P. digitatum, the most sensitive microorganism to both decoctions. Higher decoction concentrations of plants used in study will be probably inhibit mycelial growth of microorganisms.
The 4 apricot kernel samples provided from Malatya province were evaluated for moisture, ash, crude protein, crude oil, crude fibre, crude energy, non-soluble HCl acid ash, mass of 100 pits and mass of 100 kernels. Contents of Na, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu were also determined in the samples.
The antioxidant effects of seafennel (Crithmum maritimum L.) essential oil and rose (Rosa canina) methanol extract at different concentrations were tested in natural olive oil stored at 60 °C, by measuring peroxide values and free oil acidity after regular intervals. All concentrations of both plant extracts showed antioxidant effect compared with control in experiments. The most effective extracts were 0.4% level of rose. The 0.2% concentrations of rose extract and seafennel oil and 0.4% level of seafennel oil followed in a decreasing order, respectively. The 0.2% level of seafennel oil in olive oil had more effect than those of only 0.02% concentrations of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Acidity values of seafennel oil at the 0.4% concentration were high compared with its 0.2% level. Acidity values of both rose concentrations were found partly similar.
In the present study, morphological and anatomical structures of cypsela – 12 Cirsium Miller (Carduoideae, Asteraceae) taxa belonging to two sections (sect. Cirsium and sect. Cephalonoplos) were investigated in detail with using stereomicroscope and light microscope. The taxa were evaluated comparatively in the aspect of carpological variations and their anatomies were presented in here for the first time. Morphological features including size, shape and colour of cypselae were examined. From anatomical observations, anatomical structures of pericarp, as well as the structure of testa were described. Cypselae colours differ from light brown to stramineous, sometimes with blackish striations. Their shapes change from oblong to oblanceolate, rarely obovate. The largest cypselae are present in C. echinus (1.59±0.03 mm × 4.68±0.07 mm) and the smallest ones are found in C. subinerme (1.20±0.02 mm × 2.97±0.05 mm). The pericarp is characterised by almost parenchymatous cells, while the testa is composed of lignified sclerenchymatous cell lines and crushed cells group. Secretory structure in testa bundle was evaluated. Results obtained from this study were compared with the present data in literature. Overall, morphological and anatomical characteristics of cypselae provide useful taxonomic markers in their classifications of the studied taxa of Cirsium but not distinctive for their sectional levels.
Constituents of essential oils from pickling herb (Echinophora tenuifolia L. subsp. sibthorpiana (Guss.) Tutin) gathered on April, May and June periods in Konya province were identified by GC/MS. The oil yields on a dry weight basis were 0.9%, 1.3% and 1.1%, respectively. The main ones of identified components representing 87.25%, 96.91% and 97.38% of the oils were d-3-carene (36.98%, 38.8% and 30.01%), methyl eugenol (21.10%, 25.04% and 25.96%), a-phellandrene (14.5%, 21.71% and 29.26%); together with p-cymene (5.08%, 2.01% and 1.96%) and b-phellandrene (3.11%, 3.47% and 4.7%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations of some compounds were determined with respect to collection time.
Authors:J. Chalchat, M. Özcan, G. Figueredo, and P. Chalard
The essential oils of leaves of Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana (Apiaceae) growing wild in Middle Anatolia were obtained by hydrodistillation, and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The major constituents were affected depend on harvest years. Methyl-eugenol, δ-3-carene and p-cymene were established as the major components of pickling herb leaves collected between 2003 and 2009. The main constituents of leave oil were methyl-eugenol (24.99% to 90.16%), δ-3-carene (2.57% to 34.80%) and p-cymene (1.23% to 9.81%) depending on the harvest years.
Authors:M. Citil, V. Gunes, O. Atakisi, Ayla Ozcan, M. Tuzcu, and A. Dogan
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations in experimentally-induced chronic aflatoxicosis in quails. For this purpose, a total of 80 quails up to 8 weeks old were divided into four equal groups. Group I served as control, Group II was given L-carnitine at the dose of 200 mg/litre in the drinking water for 60 days, Group III was given 60 µg total aflatoxin/kg diet for 60 days, and Group IV was given both 60 µg total aflatoxin/kg diet and 200 mg L-carnitine/litre in the drinking water for 60 days. Aflatoxin treatment caused a significant increase in plasma MDA and a significant decrease in blood GSH concentrations. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in plasma MDA and a significant increase in whole blood GSH in the L-carnitine-supplemented group. The present study demonstrated that L-carnitine brought about the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by enhancing antioxidant capacity in quails with chronic aflatoxicosis.