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To evaluate the prevalence of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) type 4/91 in Iran, tracheal swabs from 77 broiler flocks in 16 provinces were collected at the slaughterhouse. Swabs were subjected to RNA extraction and tested by RT-PCR, followed by a type-specific nested PCR. The viral RNA was detected in 33 samples (42.8%) from different provinces. The results indicate a relatively high prevalence of IBV type 4/91 in Iran and necessitate revising the vaccination programme against this disease.

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Abstract  

A study of an epoxy-cycloaliphatic amine system has been realized using a thermogravimetric technique (TG). Isothermal and non-isothermal (dynamic) methods were employed to determine the kinetic data of this system. Five methods were used for determining the activation energies of this system in the dynamic heating experiments. In two of them (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, and Kissinger) it is not necessary to have a prior knowledge of the reaction mechanism of the degradation behaviour for this system. In the other ones (Coats and Redfern, Horowitz and Metzger, and Van Krevelen et al.) it is necessary to know this reaction mechanism, besides Criado et al. method was used for determining it. The results have shown that good agreement between the activation energies obtained from all methods can be achieved if it is assumed that the degradation behaviour of this system is of sigmoidal-rate type.

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Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was applied to study the cure kinetics of an epoxy system containing both tetraglycidyl 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGDDM) and a multifunctional Novolac glycidyl ether resin, cured with 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS). The experimental data were analyzed in terms of a mechanistic model proposed by Cole, which includes the etherification reaction. The kinetics can be completely described in terms of three rate constants, which obey the Arrhenius relationship. This model gives a good description of the cure kinetics up to the onset of vitrification. The effect of diffusion control was incorporated to describe the cure in the later stages. By combining the model and a diffusion factor, it was possible to predict the cure kinetics over the whole range of conversion, including an analysis of the evolution of different chemical species during the curing process. Good agreement with the experimental DSC data was achieved with this mechanistic model over the whole range of cure when the etherification reaction was assumed to be of first order with respect to the concentrations of epoxide groups, hydroxy groups, and the tertiary amine groups formed in the epoxide amine reaction.

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Abstract  

The physical aging of a system containing tetraglycidyl-4-4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGDDM), with a multifunctional novolac glycidyl ether resin hardened by 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulphone (DDS) has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples fully cured were aged at temperatures between 200 and 250C, during periods of time from 1 to a maximum of 336 h. Furthermore, the dynamic mechanical relaxation behaviour annealed at temperature of 220C, was studied, aging during 24 and 168 h. The effect of the enthalpy relaxation during DSC heating scan is shown by the presence of an endothermic peak whose position and intensity depends on the aging conditions, both temperature and time. DSC studies suggest that enthalpy relaxation increases gradually with aging time to a limiting value for each temperature where structural equilibrium is reached. DMA results show that the effect of aging is to cause chain stiffening and a decrease in the height of the peak value of the loss factor.

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Abstract  

Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) we have studied the physical aging of an epoxy resin based on the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) modified by two different contents of an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and cured with 1,3-bisaminomethylcyclohexane (1,3-BAC). Samples fully cured were annealed at temperature of 125C for periods of time of 72 and 120 h, to determine the process of physical aging. The apparent activation energy for the enthalpy relaxation, Dh*, is determined as the sample is heated at 10C min-1 following cooling at various rates through the glass transition region. DSC studies suggested that the presence of thermoplastic inhibits the process of relaxation.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: L. Barral, J. Cano, J. López, I. López-Bueno, P. Nogueira, C. Ramírez, A. Torres, and M. Abad

Abstract  

Cure kinetics using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique were analyzed for a thermoplastic modified tetraglycidyl-4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGDDM) epoxy resin cured with diaminodiphenylsulphone (DDS), an aromatic diamine. The neat resin and its blends with the poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) of various compositions were studied by applying a phenomenological model proposed by Kamal. Kinetic parameters were determined by fitting experimental data. This model gives a good description of cure kinetics up to the onset of vitrification. Diffusion control was incorporated to describe the cure in the latter stages of cure. The results showed that the addition of SAN did not alter the nature of the reaction, but the reaction rates and final conversions decreased when SAN contents increase, due to reduction of mobility of the reacting species.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: F. J. Díez, C. Alvarińo, J. López, C. Ramírez, M. J. Abad, J. Cano, S. García-Garabal, and L. Barral
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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: L. Barral, J. Cano, J. López, I. López-Bueno, P. Nogueira, C. Ramírez, A. Torres, and M. Abad

Abstract  

The effect of thermal degradation on the mechanical behaviour of a system containing both tetraglycidyl-4-4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGDDM) and a multifunctional novolac glycidyl ether (EPN) resins, cured with 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulphone (DDS) has been studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile tests. Different curing paths using the isothermal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for this system were designed, obtaining thermosetting materials with different conversions. The influences of the degree of cure and of the aging temperature were also studied. The results showed different trends in the dynamic mechanical properties and an increase in the stiffness of the material with increasing aging time. Changes were faster and more intense with the higher temperature.

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