Effect of nitric oxide and putrescine on postharvest life and quality of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch. cv. Selva) fruit was studied. Fruits were treated with nitric oxide (at 0, 3, 5, and 8 μmol l−1) and putrescine (at 0 and 2 mmol l−1) and stored at 2.5 °C with 85–95% RH for 15 days. Fruit quality attributes, including firmness, vitamin C content, total soluble solids, total phenolics, colour, total acidity, overall quality, and decay index, were evaluated throughout the cold storage. Both nitric oxide and putrescine effectively maintained fruit firmness, soluble solids content, vitamin C, red colour, total phenolics, total acidity, and overall quality. Postharvest treatment of strawberries with 5 μmol l−1 nitric oxide effectively controlled decay organisms and retained fruit quality during 15 days of storage at 2.5 °C. Putrescine effectively enhanced the effects of nitric oxide in maintaining fruit quality indices.
Authors:L. Mosahaneh, H. Charehgani, M. Abdollahi, and R. Rezaei
The efficacy of single and combined application of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens (CHA0) in the controlling of Meloidogyne javanica on tomato plants was evaluated under green house conditions. Seeds of the susceptible tomato cv. Early-Urbana were sown in clean plastic pots containing 1.5 kg steam sterilized soil. Four weeks after planting, the soil of each pot was infested with a suspension of 20 ml/kg soil of T. harzianum (106 spores/ ml) and a suspension of 15 ml/kg soil of P. fluorescens (CHA0) (108 CFU/ ml). Soil of other pots were infested with the two tested bio-agents together as a combined application. Seven days later, plants in all pots, except the controls, were inoculated with M. javanica at initial population densities of 1, 2 or 4 eggs/ cm3 soil. Sixty days after nematode inoculation, the parameters of plant growth and nematode reproduction were determined. Results showed that the nematode reproduction factor (Rf) on the plants infected with 1, 2 and 4 eggs/ cm3 decreased by 58, 63 and 31% after the single application of T. harzianum, 11, 33 and 12% after the single application of P. fluorescens (CHA0) and 43, 55 and 49% after the combined application of the bio-agents, respectively. Combined application of the two bio-agents was found to be the most effective in controlling the higher initial population density of the nematode (4 eggs/ cm3).
Authors:N. Hashemi, Azadeh Mohammadirad, Zahra Bayrami, R. Khorasani, Sanaz Vosough, Atousa Aliahmadi, Shekoufeh Nikfar, M. Sharifzadeh, A. Kebriaeezadeh, and M. Abdollahi
The effects of morphine, 1-aminocyclobutane-cis-1,3-dicarboxylic (ACBD; NMDA agonist) and 3-((R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphoric acid (CPP; NMDA antagonist) and their concurrent therapy on rat submandibular secretory function were studied. Pure submandibular saliva was collected intraorally by micro polyethylene cannula from anaesthetized rats using pilocarpine as secretagogue. Intraperitoneal injection of morphine (6 mg/kg) induced significant inhibition of salivary flow rate, total protein, calcium, and TGF-b1 concentrations. Administration of ACBD (10 mg/kg) and CPP (10 mg/kg) alone did not influence secretion of submandibular glands. In combination therapy, coadministration of CPP with morphine did not influence morphine-induced changes in salivary function while ABCD could restore all morphine-induced changes. In combination treatment, ACBD prevented morphine-induced reduction of flow rate, total protein, calcium, and TGF- b1 and reached control levels. It is concluded that morphine-induced alterations in submandibular gland function are mediated through NMDA receptors.