The lack of interpretation methods capable of examining the aroma-profiles of spicy and medicinal plants and other samples of food origin (wines, honeys, fruits, fruit-distillates) makes necessary a thorough investigation of the relating evaluation procedures. By adding three appropriate hydrocarbon standards to all sample extracts, and measuring the programmed temperature retention indices of the components and normalizing the peak areas to that of the compound corresponding to the most intense chromatographic peak, a visualization of the aroma characteristics could be achieved. The relationship or identity of aroma patterns could be deduced from the presence or absence of similar polygons in the ihconstellation-mapsl. of the components.
Volatile constituents of four red pepper (called paprika in Hungarian) cultivars of the famous Szeged paprika growing region were analysed by GC-MS measurements subsequent to Likens-Nickerson simultaneous distillation extraction (LN-SDE) sample preparation. Of the compounds, 107 common constituents were managed to be identified. The examination detected the presence of terpenes, esters, hydrocarbons, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Several sulphur, cyclic nitrogen, and oxygen containing compounds were found as well, which usually present fairly high odour activities. The most abundant components in the examined cultivars were the hexadecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, 4-vinyl-2-methoxy-phenol (4-vinyl guaiacol), and a compound of unknown structure. Though many pyrazines and relative substances occurred in the samples, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, responsible for the fresh red bell pepper note, could not be detected.
The effect of the drying dehydration process on the characteristic aroma structure of apricot samples has been studied. A close mass spectrometric examination of the relating gas chromatograms revealed the fundamental differences between the fresh and parched fruits. The comparability of the records has been created by the normalisation of both chromatographic axes. The procedure is called aroma spectrum method. The measurements prove that the drying process destroys the fine scent structure to a surprisingly high extent. The two most important constituents responsible for the apricot character disappear, as well.
Comparison of Hungarianground red paprika volatiles of known origin (identical to cultivated varietiesgrown in Kalocsa, Hungary) and provenance has been performed following simultaneous distillation-extraction sample preparation. After polar phase capillary gas-chromatography, mass spectrometric identification of as many compounds as possible was carried out to precisely describe the aroma profile of the cultivars. For conceptualizing the results a data evaluation and interpretation method has been elaborated considering the component ratios that are much more characteristic of the cultivars than the absolute amounts themselves. Relative intensity interpretation of the peak areas (y-axis) and Programmed Temperature Retention Index (x-axis) measurement resulted in aromagrams individually characteristic of the cultivated varieties. In an identification experiment the cultivars have been recognized successfully by the graphic visualization of the results called aroma-spectra (by analogy to mass spectrometry) method.
Sugar composition, pH, invertase and diastase activity and colour of 7 robinia (Robinia pseudoacacia) and 8 milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) honey samples were compared, all purchased from producers and wholesalers. Milkweed honeys proved to be of darker colour and more acidic. The two unifloral honeys showed statistically significant differences between their diastase and invertase activities, milkweed honey showed higher enzyme activity values than robinia honey. The fructose to glucose ratio was 1.58 in case of robinia honey and 1.28 in case of milkweed honey. There was also a significant difference between the di- and trisaccharide content of the two unifloral honeys.