In the area of the typical 3D Békés basin ("graben") high anisotropy (difference) appears in the extreme values of the magnetotelluric impedance phases in the period interval corresponding to the indication of the conductive asthenosphere. As proved by the forward 2D/3D modelling, this anisotropy can only be explained by a strong 2D effect. This fact may conform the validity of the results of the 2D inversion of PGT1 magnetotelluric data indicating the upwelling of the asthenosphere below the Békés basin.
The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional habits and lifestyle practice of elderly people living in their own home. Altogether 213 subjects (men over 65 years, women over 60 years), were recruited randomly from a primary care office in Budapest. Nearly 60% of people had three meals per day, but the number of meals increased during ageing. The most substantial meal was the lunch. Meals were prepared at home by 90% of the elderly. Lard for cooking was used by 44% of subjects. Additional use of salt was never mentioned by 18% of seniors only. Milk, dairy products, fish, fruits, fresh vegetables and vegetable dish were consumed far below the recommendations. All types of meat were radically decreased, especially beef compared to former Hungarian surveys and the data of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Almost one-third of the elderly took some kind of vitamins and/or mineral supplements. The average time spent with outdoor activity was only 12 h per week.In relation to non-infectious diseases connected with nutrition, the irregular consumption of food has to be underlined. The insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products may have an unfavourable effect on the bone status. Deficient consumption of fruits, vegetables and cereals may play a role in the development of cardiovascular diseases and certain types of tumours. The exaggerated salt intake has to be taken into account mainly in hypertension. The inadequate physical activity may be also responsible for decreased longevity of our population.
Solid inclusion complexes of TolperisoneHCl with five various cyclodextrins were prepared by kneading and spray drying. The complex formation between the drug and the cyclodextrins were proven using thermoanalytical methods, X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy. The results of the solid state investigations were supported by the liquid phase investigations, such solubility and parition constant measurements and stability constant determination. Among all cyclodextrins used the β- and γ-CD-s were found to be the best complexing agents.
The quantitative analysis of antibiotics in different matrices is of increasing importance in in vitro studies of food-drug interactions in the drug-development process. Our objective was to develop a new, rapid and simple solid-phase extraction method without protein precipitation followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) for analysis of ciprofloxacin in low- and high-fat milk. The HPLC-MS method (a single-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source was used as detector) was validated using a quinolone derivative, aripiprazole, as internal standard. A C8 column and gradient elution with 0.02 m ammonium acetate solution (pH 2.5) and acetonitrile mixtures (flow rate 0.5 mL min−1) were used for HPLC separation. Various modes of detection (diode-array detection and MS detection in scanning and selected-ion monitoring modes) were compared for selectivity and sensitivity of quantitative analysis of ciprofloxacin. Use of selected- ion monitoring resulted in a 1600:1 signal-to-noise ratio which can be successfully applied to milk matrices resulting in a lower limit of detection of 0.4 ng mL−1 and a lower limit of quantification of 4.0 ng mL−1. Recovery was 99.06 ± 0.15 and 98.57 ± 0.14% for low- and high-fat milk, respectively. The method enables analysis of the free, biologically available, amount of ciprofloxacin in in vitro simulation of milk-ciprofloxacin interaction studies.
The complexity of the phenomena which arise during the heating of the various substances seldom can be described by a single reaction kinetic equation. As a consequence, sophisticated models with several unknown parameters have to be developed. The determination of the unknown parameters and the validation of the models requires the simultaneous evaluation of whole series of experiments. We can accept a model and its parameters if, and only if we get a reasonable fit to several experiments carried out at different experimental conditions. In the field of the thermal analysis the method of least squares alone seldom can select abest model or abest set of parameter values. Nevertheless, the careful evaluation of the experiments may help in the discerning between various chemical or physical assumptions by the quality of the corresponding fit between the experimental and the simulated date. The problem is illustrated by the thermal de-composition of cellulose under various experimental conditions.
The world’s energy consumption continues to increase, which results in demographic changes, living standard increases and technical development. In the world and Hungary the interest in biomass crops also has increased considerably over the previous decades. This paper summarizes the most important biological, biotechnological and agronomical researches and results of our working group, in Department of Agricultural Botany, Plant Physiology and Plant Biotechnology, University of Debrecen. It represents our research group publications and introduces some efficient propagation possibilities of promising new perennial bioenergy crops, giant reed (Arundo donax L.) and Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita Rushby).
In order to identify a specific marker for T. harzianum AS12-2, a strain capable of controlling rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani, UP-PCR was performed using five universal primers (UP) both separately and in pairwise combinations. The application of two UP primers resulted in the amplification of unique fragments from the genomic DNA of T. harzianum AS12-2, clearly distinguishing it from other Trichoderma strains. The unique fragments had no significant sequence homology with any other known sequence available in databases. Based on the sequences of the unique fragments, 14 oligonucleotide primers were designed. Two primer sets amplified a fragment of expected size from the DNA of strain T. harzianum AS12-2 but not from any other examined strains belonging to T. harzianum, to other Trichoderma species assayed, or to other common fungi present in paddy fields of Mazandaran province, Iran. In conclusion, SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) markers were successfully identified and rapid, reliable tools were provided for the detection of an effective biocontrol Trichoderma strain, which can facilitate studies of its population dynamics and establishment after release into the natural environment.
Coprogen production of
was dependent on glucose, aspartate and iron contents as well as on initial pH of the culture media. Surplus iron and acidic pH hindered the production of coprogen as well as the transcription of the
gene (NCU07117) encoding putative L-ornithine-N
-monooxygenase, the first enzyme in the coprogen biosynthetic pathway. High glucose (40 g/l) and aspartate (21 g/l) concentrations were beneficial for coprogen synthesis, but neither glucose nor aspartate affected the
transcription. Moreover, efficient coprogen production was observed after glucose had been consumed, which suggested that
accumulated iron even in non-growing, carbon-starving cultures.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of elderly belonging to one primary care office. Twenty-seven men and 26 women, all over 60 years, were involved. Nutritional assessment, anthropometric measurements were performed, serum proteins, lipid and iron status and haematological parameters were determined. Energy and protein intake was sufficient, but the distribution of energy with a high fat and low carbohydrate was inadequate. Iron, copper, calcium, retinol and folate intake was lower, whereas sodium, ascorbic acid and cobalamin intake was higher than the Hungarian recommendation. The prevalence of obesity characterized by body mass index or waist circumference was higher in women than in men. The percentage of pathological levels of lipid parameters was also higher in women. No iron deficient erythropoesis was detected, but high serum ferritin concentration as a marker of body iron store was determined in some cases. General practitioners have possibilities to influence the nutritional habits of elderly, thereby reducing the incidence of obesity, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Iron status of Hungarian elderly looks to be satisfactory, so supplementation without testing the iron status would be useless and harmful.
Several misconceptions exist about foods and nutrition. Many believe, that the human body can “acidify”, thus, an “alkaline diet” should be followed. The acid-base balance is a characteristic of a normally functioning human body. Throughout our metabolic processes, acids and substances with acidic pH are produced continuously, which, in the case of a healthy person, does not affect the pH of the human body. In those rare cases, when an overall pH imbalance evolves in the human body due to its life-threatening nature, it requires urgent medical intervention. Furthermore, it cannot be influenced by dietary interventions.
This paper highlights evidence regarding acidification and the acid-base balance, with special attention to certain food groups. Foodstuffs have different specific pH value (acid-base character), they can be acidic, alkaline, or neutral in elemental state. Beside their chemical nature, the effect they have on the human body depends on the mechanism of their metabolism, as well. Diet and ingredients have direct and indirect effects on the human body's intracellular and extracellular compartments (especially blood and urine), still they do not influence its pH significantly.
Alkaline diets were born in the absence of evidence-based information and/or the misunderstanding and wrong interpretation of the available and up-to-date scientific facts. The convictions of consumers and the promotion of the alkaline diet lack the scientific basis, so it can be harmful or even dangerous in the long run.
In summary, scientific evidence on the efficacy or prophylactic effects of an alkaline diet is not available.