This paper describes an evaluation of activation analysis by delayed neutron counting to determine uranium and thorium simultaneously in geological materials and to measure235U/238U isotopic ratios. A procedure to isolate the thorium before the irradiation was studied and adapted for use when the interference of uranium makes the nondestructive thorium analysis impossible.235U/238U ratios were determined in standards with235U abundances from about 0.5 to 93%, in milligram size samples. Discussion on precision, accuracy and total error of the method is presented.
The environmental changes that occurred in different periods can be identified through the increase or decrease of the concentrations
of metals and other substances throughout sediment cores. The purpose of this study was to determine Al, As, Ba, Br, Cs, Eu,
K, La, Mn, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, Ti, U and V in a sediment core collected from São Paulo State South Seashore. Instrumental neutron
activation analysis followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was the analytical method used. Results showed an abrupt decrease in
the concentration of all elements in the 132–134 cm layer depth. This finding indicates an impact of anthropic activity.
A purely instrumental method for the determination of Mo in uranium containing materials is presented. The precision and accuracy were verified by the analysis of several Standard Reference Materials with different proportions of Mo and U. Detection limits varied from 0.8 to 1.3 g/g for Mo. The method can be applied to determine Mo in the studies of agricultural zone characterization.
Authors:M. Armelin, R. Piasentin, and O. Primavesi
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages.
Authors:M. Vasconcellos, M. Armelin, A. Figueiredo, B. Mazzilli, and M. Saiki
In the present work, a comparative study is made among nuclear methods for235U/238U ratios determination: activation analysis followed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, delayed neutron counting, passive gamma-ray and alpha spectrometry. Activation analysis followed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry yielded a relative standard deviation down to 0.1% and a relative error of about 1% for standards of uranium enriched to 14%. Passive gamma-ray spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors yielded a relative error down to 0.1% for enriched uranium and values even lower for the standard deviation. Passive gamma-ray spectrometry using Low Energy Photon Detector (LEPD) yielded a precision of 0.2% and a still better accuracy for enriched standards. In the case of alpha spectrometry, a relative error down to 0.5% and a precision of about 1% were obtained, also for enriched uranium standards. Delayed neutron counting allowed a relative standard deviation of about 7% and a relative error of about 2%, for standards of depleted uranium.
Authors:D. Fávaro, V. Maihara, M. Armelin, M. Vasconcellos, and S. Cozzolino
The present paper describes radiochemical separation procedures developed for the determination of seven elements: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se in different Brazilian regional diets. In the case of the elements As, Hg, Sb and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TDO (tin dioxide) and determination of Hg by extraction with Ni(DDC)2. For determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Se the procedure chosen was based on retention in inorganic exchanger HMD (hydrated managese dioxide) and extraction of Cu and Cd as diethyldithiocarbamate compounds. The accuracy and precision of the methods studied were tested by means of analyses of different reference materials. Due to the lack of data on trace element levels in Brazilian foodstuffs and diets, these methods were applied to determination of these elements in different Brazilian regional diets. These diets were supplied by the Food and Experimental Nutrition Department of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of São Paulo. The daily dietary intake values for these diets are presented for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se.
Authors:C. Teruya, M. Armelin, J. Filho, A. Silva, and M. Saiki
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with gamma-ray spectrometry was applied to determine As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Sb, Se and Zn in the Brazilian agroindustrial by-products. These materials are widely used in ruminant feeding. The results obtained were compared with requirement and maximum tolerable concentrations. The general conclusions from the data obtained were: (1) many by-products presented concentrations of some essential elements lower than the requirement concentrations, while in some concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mg and Se exceeded by a little the maximum tolerable concentrations, (2) the elements As, Cd, Hg and Sb, generally considered toxic, showed concentrations lower than maximum tolerable values.
Authors:R. Piasentin, M. Armelin, O. Primavesi, and M. Saiki
Leaf samples of two varieties of Cajanus cajan Millsp were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were taken from plants grown under two fertilizer dose conditions, making use of the following microminerals: Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn, which were applied individually to the soil. The samples were collected in two cutting times. We verify the variation in the absorption of each element, considering its availability in the soil.
Authors:M. Armelin, V. Maihara, M. Vasconcellos, D. Fávaro, and V. Nascimento
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, S, V, Zn in five varieties of Brazilian corn, resulting from the studies carried out in order to increase their protein contents. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by means of reference material analysis. In general, the precision of the method was lower than 15%, except for Cu, I and S. Sensitivity and detection limit were also determined. Besides, tryptophan contents were determined. It was observed that the tryptophan content in improved corn samples was twice as large as in the normal samples. However, the same ratio was not observed in the inorganic element contents.
Authors:M. Armelin, M. Vasconcellos, E. Pereira, and F. Sircilli Neto
A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure is described for the determination of concentration levels of iridium in sedimentary rocks and in the geochemical standard PCC-1. After irradiation, the powdered rock samples and standard are dissolved with a mixture of HF, HNO3 and HClO4 in a teflon bomb. The final solution obtained, in dilute HCl, is passed through a column containing the cationic resin Bio Rad AG 50W-X8. The interfening radionuclides are sorbed by the resin. The effluent solution containing iridium is concentrated for counting by evaporation. Experiments with radioactive tracer for checking radiochemical separation yield are carried out. The accuracy of the method is evaluated by means of analysis of the USGS standard rock peridotite, PCC-1. The precision is about 25% in the ppb range. The method is used for the determination of iridium in 16 samples of sedimentary rocks collected at different depths in the Campos basin-RJ (BRAZIL).