The removal of134Cs and60Co from radioactive process waste water using cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) as a collector and cobalt(II) hexacyanoferrate(II) as a precipitant for60Co and sorbent (ion exchanger) for134Cs was intensively investigated and the best removal conditions could be established. The results indicate that under the optimum conditions removals higher than 96% and 97% could be achieved for Co(II) and Cs(I), respectively. Cobalt(II) hexacyanoferrate(II) was found to have high affinity for cesium and can preferentially remove it in presence of relatively high amounts of other alkali or alkaline earth cations. A two-stage flotation process was successfully tested for the removal of both Cs(I) and Co(II) from waters containing both cations.
Ion, precipitate and adsorbing colloid flotations of zinc(II) from dilute aqueous solutions have been investigated over a wide pH range using the anionic surfactant Aerosol OT or the cationic collector cetyl pyridinium chloride. In case of adsorbing colloid flotation (ACF) iron oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxide were used, either separately or together, as coprecipitants. The precipitate flotation curves were compared with the corresponding theoretical one calculated from the data published for Zn(II) hydrolysis. In addition to the effect of pH on the percent removal the effects of collector concentration, ionic strength, bubbling time and metal ion concentration were investigated and the optimum conditions were established. High removals could be achieved especially with ACF. The results obtained are discussed with respect to the chemical state of zinc, the ionization behaviour of the collectors and properties of the coprecipitants. The developed ACF process was applied to the removal of65Zn from radioactive process wastewater.
The liquid-liquid extraction and precipitate flotation of the second kind (i.e., without the use of surfactant collectors) have been investigated for Co(II) using 8-hydroxy quinoline (Hq) and the results are compared. Organic solvents used were chloroform in the case of liquid-liquid extraction and ethanol (used as a solvent for the collector and as a frother) in the case of flotation. From the results it appears that liquid-liquid extraction occurs through the formation of the adduct Coq2(Hq) but flotation takes place through the formation of the precipitate Coq2. Unlike precipitate flotation of the first kind, precipitate flotation of the second kind has the advantage that the recovery is not affected by the ionic strength of the medium. An induction time of about 5 minutes is required to attain the maximum flotation results. The effects of pH and Hq concentration on both of the extraction processes were also investigated and the results are discussed.
The 2,2',4,4',6,6'hexanitrostilbene, HNS, nucleant, used in the crystallisation of 2,4,6,trinitrotoluene, TNT, was precipitated from molten TNT and examined by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, at several stages during purification by vacuum sublimation. During purification a broad endotherm, associated with nucleant decomposition, which could be resolved into two endotherms, depending on the sublimation temperature, was observed. Pure nucleant prepared at 70‡C showed a similar behaviour during thermal annealing for extended periods of time at >85‡C. Thus TNT, retained in the recrystallised HNS nucleant, may be migrating during the purification process or may occupy a range of lattice sites, which exhibit different activation energies for migration to the surface of the solid during thermal decomposition of the nucleant. Loss of TNT from the nucleant, during purification, could produce some free HNS. The activation energy for nucleant decomposition, which may be a two-stage processes with the initial mobility of the TNT being the limiting reaction, was estimated to be ∼210 kJ mol−. The lattice sites available for the TNT in the host HNS nucleant require elucidation and are the subject of further studies to be published at a later date.
Synergistic extraction of Co(II) with 8-hydroxyquinoline (Hq)/decanoic acid [(HR)2] solution mixtures in benzene and chloroform was carried out at 25°C. The aqueous ionic strength and the total concentration of cobalt(II) were 0.1 (NaCl) and 1·10–5–1·10–3M, respectively. The synergistic effect is interpreted by the formation of the mixed ligand ion-pair complexes: [(Coq(Hq)2(HR))+, R–] and [(Coq(Hq)2(HR)3)+, R–] in benzene and chloroform, respectively.
Ion, precipitate and adsorbing colloid flotation of cobalt(II) have been investigated at different pH values, using N-dodecylpyridinium chloride (DPCl), A strong cationic surfactant, and sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS), a strong anionic surfactant, as collectors. In case of adsorbing colloid flotation, hydrous manganese dioxide was used as an adsorbent. The precipitate flotation curves experimentally obtained with the two tested collectors were compared with the corresponding theoretical one calculated from the data published for Co(II) hydrolysis. The effects of the collector concentration, ageing of the water-MnO2–Co(II) system, bubbling time period, cobalt(II) concentration and foreign salts on the percent removal of Co(II) by adsorbing colloid flotation using DPCl as collector were determined. Removals approaching 100% could be achieved under the optimum conditions.
A method is presented for the spectrophotometric determination of uranium in natural waters after a preconcentration step involving percolation of a suitable aliquot of the water sample whose pH is adjusted to 6.0–6.5 through a TBP-plasticized dibenzoylmethane-loaded polyurethane foam bed. Uranium on the foam is eluted with 0.6M HCl solution and then determined spectrophotometrically using arsenazo III as a chromogenic reagent.
As a part of a research program on the treatment of radioactive process waste waters, sorbent macroflotation was tested to remove Co(II) from dilute aqueous solutions. Activated charcoal was used as the sorbent, and gelatin, cetylpyridinium chloride, dodecylamine or N-dodecylpyridinium chloride (NDPC) as the collector. In addition to the effect of the collector type on the percent removal, the effects of the pH, the charcoal and collector doses, the metal ion concentration, the ionic strength and the use of combinations of NDPC with other reagents have been investigated. At the optimum conditions removals better then 97% could be achieved in the pH range of 7.5–10.0 with NDPC plus a low concentration of a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide. The results obtained are discussed in terms of hydrolysis of the metal ion and the electric state of both the charcoal and collector.
The extraction of cerium(III) from weakly acidic chloride solutions by HDEHP-nitrobenzene-loaded polyurethane foams could be analyzed quantitatively in terms of the equation: log(9.056 Dc)=log Kc+2.14 log (Cd–6Cc)+3 pH+log fc where Dc is the distribution ratio of cerium(III) between the foam and aqueous phases, Cd and Cc are the total HDEHP and Ce(III) concentrations on the foam, respectively, log fc=[Ce3+](sq)/[Ce(III)](aq), and Kc is the equilibrium constant of the equation: Ce
. Values of Kc under the different extraction conditions tested are given.