Authors:M. Błachnio, P. Staszczuk, and G. Grodzicka
Modified carbon multiwall nanotubes were prepared via the oxidation process by means of 65% nitric acid or ferric nitrate
dissolved with 65% nitric acid. Using special thermogravimetry and sorptometry methods physicochemical properties of pure
and modified nanotube surfaces were investigated. A numerical and analytical procedure for the evaluation of total heterogeneous
properties on the basis of liquid thermodesorption from the sample surfaces under the quasi-equilibrium conditions are presented.
The calculations of the fractal dimensions of carbon nanotubes using the sorptometry and thermogravimetry data is presented.
Authors:P. Staszczuk, M. Majdan, S. Pikus, D. Sternik, and M. Błachnio
Complex studies of physicochemical properties of pure and modified of aluminia oxides samples are presented. The presence
of Mn2+ and Ni2+ modifiers on the aluminium oxide surface causes increase in water adsorption capacity and decrease in benzene and n-octane adsorption. This is due to decrease of specific surface area, volume and radius of pores as a result of surface impregnation
and microcrystal formation during modification with manganese and nickel chlorides. Microcrystal formation on the surface
and porosity decrease as confirmed by AFM, EDX and powder diffraction studies using automated diffractometer by step scanning.
From the Q-TG and Q-DTG data, the energies of liquid desorption from the surface of the samples and the functions of desorption,
energy distribution were calculated. High degree of nonlinearity of the functions resulting from great heterogeneity of the
studied surface was found. Adsorption of cations creates more homogeneous surface in aluminium oxide, and it is responsible
for the change in adsorbate molecule interaction energy and changes mechanism of adsorption and desorption as well as thickness
and structure of the adsorbed film. From the experimental data some parameters characterizing adsorption properties and porosity
of the studied samples were determined using the complex measuring methods (thermal analysis, sorptometry, porosimetry, AFM
Authors:P. Staszczuk, M. Płanda-Czyż, M. Błachnio, and V. Kutarov
The new method of diffusion coefficient calculations
from thermogravimetry Q-TG data has been presented. Programmed thermodesorption
of polar and apolar liquids from aluminium oxide and montmorillonite-Na and
-La samples in quasi-isothermal conditions has been made. The result from
above method was compared with literature data and good correlation were obtained.
Authors:M. Błachnio, P. Staszczuk, G. Grodzicka, L. Lin, and Y. Zhu
Uniformly carbon-covered alumina (CCA) was
prepared via the carbonisation of sucrose highly dispersed on the alumina
surface. Using special thermogravimetry and sorptometry methods physicochemical
properties of carbon-covered alumina surfaces were investigated. A numerical
and analytical procedure for the evaluation of total heterogeneous properties
(desorption energy distribution and pore-size distribution functions) on the
basis of liquid thermodesorption from the sample surfaces under the quasi-equilibrium
conditions are presented. The desorption energy distribution was derived from
the mass loss Q-TG and the differential mass loss Q-DTG curves of thermodesorption
of pre-adsorbed polar and apolar liquid films. For the first time, the evaluation
of the fractal dimensions of carbon-covered alumina using the sorptometry,
thermogravimetry and AFM data is presented.
Authors:D. Sternik, M. Błachnio, P. Staszczuk, G. Chądzyński, and E. Kowalska
properties (adsorption capacity, desorption energy distribution and pore-size
distribution functions) of nanomaterial surfaces from selected materials,
based on sorptometric and liquid thermodesorption measurements under quasi-equilibrium
conditions, are presented. The fractal dimensions of nanotubes using sorptometric
and AFM data have been evaluated.
Comparison of thermogravimetric
and other data provide new information about the adsorption and pore structure
of the studied materials. The fractal dimensions of nanomaterial surfaces
using sorptometry are in good agreement with those from AFM.
Authors:G. Chądzyński, P. Staszczuk, D. Sternik, and M. Błachnio
Properties relating to porosity of solids (fractal dimensions, surface roughness parameters) were evaluated from atomic force
microscopy (AFM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms measured at 77 K for selected high-temperature [(RE) Ba2Cu3O7−x, RE=Y, Sm] superconductors. Adsorption capacity, specific surface area, fractal dimensions were determined from adsorption-desorption
isotherms. The adsorption isotherms of all samples were S-shaped and belong to type II according to the IUPAC classification.
A linear relationship was demonstrated between the fractal coefficients calculated by using the two methods and values of
adsorption capacity of monolayer.
Authors:G. W. Chądzyński, P. Staszczuk, D. Sternik, and M. Błachnio
The porous structure of MgB2 has been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and sorption techniques. The fractal dimension and surface roughness parameters were evaluated from (AFM) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms measured at −196 °C for MgB2 sample. Adsorption capacity, specific surface area, and fractal dimensions were determined from adsorption–desorption isotherms. The sorption isotherms of MgB2 samples were S-shaped and belong to type II according to the IUPAC classification. The results of fractal dimensions of MgB2 surface determined on the basis sorptometry and AFM data are compared.
Authors:P. Staszczuk, J. Bazan, M. Błachnio, D. Sternik, and N. Garcia
This paper presents possible applications of thermal analysis, sorptometry
and porosimetry to study physico-chemical properties of Na- and La-montmorillonite
samples, especially for determination of total surface heterogeneity. The
quasi-isothermal thermogravimetric (Q-TG) mass loss and its first derivative
(Q-DTG) curves with respect to temperature and time obtained during programmed
liquid thermodesorption under quasi-isothermal conditions have been used to
study adsorbed layers and heterogeneous properties of the Na- and La-montmorillonites.
Calculations of the desorption energy distribution functions by analytical
procedure using mass loss Q-TG and differential mass loss Q-DTG curves of
thermodesorption under quasi-isothermal conditions of polar and non-polar
liquid vapours preadsorbed on a material surface are presented. Parameters
relating to porosity of samples were determined by sorptometry, mercury porosimetry
and atomic force microscopy (AFM). From nitrogen sorption isotherms from sorptometry
and porosimetry methods, the fractal dimensions of montmorillonites have been
calculated. Moreover, a new approach is proposed to calculate fractal dimensions
of materials obtained from Q-TG curve; this is compared with values obtained
by the above methods. The total heterogeneous properties (energy distribution
function and pore-size distribution functions) of samples studied were estimated.
The radius and pore volume of the tested samples calculated on the basis of
thermogravimetry, sorptometry and porosimetry techniques were compared and
good correlations obtained.
Authors:P. Staszczuk, D. Sternik, G. Chądzyński, E. Robens, and M. Błachnio
adsorption measured at 77 K was used to characterize the surface heterogeneity
of high-temperature superconductor surfaces. Properties relating to adsorption
and porosity of the solids (adsorption capacity, specific surface area, radii
and volume of the pores, pore-size distribution function) were determined
from nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms and atomic force microscopy
(AFM) for a series of oxide superconductors. It is shown that the adsorption
isotherms of all samples are S-shaped and belong to type II according to the
IUPAC classification. On the basis of the nitrogen adsorption isotherms and
AFM data, fractal dimensions were determined and correlations found with adsorption
and porosity parameters.
Authors:P. Staszczuk, M. Błachnio, E. Kowalska, and D. Sternik
Calculations based on the fractal geometry in the estimation of surface
heterogeneity are superior compared with conventional calculation methods
(e.g. from the data of gas adsorption or X-ray radiation scattering) as they
can be applied without limitation as far as the range of surface sizes of
the studied structures is concerned. This paper presents structural characteristics
of carbon and carbon- free nanomaterials based on the determined surface and
volumetric fractal coefficients. Fractal coefficients were determined from
the data obtained by means of two independent methods: sorptometry and atomic
force microscopy (AFM). Correlation between porosity parameters and fractal
coefficients is presented.