A method is described for the recovery of NH499TcO4 from its reaction waste. From the collected waste solution99Tc was precipitated as99Tc2S7 which on digestion with ammoniacal hydrogen peroxide produced a mixture of NH499TcO4 and (NH4)2SO4 from which the latter was removed by treatment with Ba(OH)2. The solution fumished NH499TcO4 as a crystalline material in 54% overall yield and with 96–98% purity after chromatographic purification over Dowex 50W column. Recrystallisation of this material from aqueous ammoniacal ethanol gave the analytical material which compared well with a standard sample and with literature data in terms of its -counts/mg and its molar extinction co-efficients () at 244 and 286 nm.
Seismically Kutch peninsula is very active. The distribution of seismicity in Peninsular Shield region from 1902 to 2001 show 12 earthquakes of
≥ 6. The energy ratio from Kutch basin to Deccan trap is 20:1 and from trap to rest of the shield is 5:1. The last one hundred years seismicity data show Kutch basin is seismically more active than Deccan trap and the rest of the Peninsular Shield. The maximum magnitude of earthquake in the Kutch region is 7.7. The generations of large earthquakes in the region are difficult to explain, as plate boundary does not exist. In order to understand the physical processes that are taking place in the region to generate such large events the detailed analyses of geophysical and geological data have been examined in the light of development of rift, subsidence of basin, vertical tectonics and recent geophysical findings. In such regions, petrologic model can provide better explanation for release of fluid that generates large earthquakes, sprouting of sands, liquefaction, and large number of aftershocks activities and direction of stresses for aftershock sequences. The presence of magma in the Kutch upper mantle could be derived from various geological (subsidence of basin, development of rift faults) and geophysical observations (high heat flow over Cambay region, prominent positive Bouguer gravity anomalies and low shear velocity in the upper mantle). The inspection of seismological data shows all the medium size to large earthquake have occurred in shear zone of large gravity gradients or along the four major faults of the region. In view of geological and geophysical observations, petrologic model is proposed for generation of earthquakes in the region. The number of aftershocks and direction of stresses in the focal region of aftershocks would depend on the direction of movement of fluid incursion in the focal region after the occurrence of the main events. The recent Bhuj earthquake also shows more than 3000 aftershocks from Jan 29 to April 15, 2001. The expanding swarm activity in the focal region and the direction of stresses derived from first motion data of aftershocks for focal depths 2 to 8 km, 8 to 25 km, and 25 to 38 km supports the proposed model. Also, shear wave tomography studies in this region have revealed low shear wave velocity in the upper mantle of Cambay from shallow depth to 200 km depth showing high temperature zone. The analyses reveal the presence of conducting fluid in the focal zone, which is the main cause for generation of medium size to large earthquake in the region.
Feasibility of using fixed bed column of conventional ion exchangers/sorbent and chemical precipitation based processes have
been examined for the effective removal of the very low levels of 106Ru activity from NH4NO3 effluent generated during wet processing of rejected sintered depleted uranium fuel pellets. Based on the results, a simple
process involving precipitation of cobalt sulphide along with ferric hydroxide was selected and further optimization of process
variables was carried out. The optimized process has been found to be highly efficient in reducing 106Ru activity down to extremely low levels.
Aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), present in fungus infested crops is highly carcinogenic and is measured by immunoassays. 125I labeled aflatoxin B1 is a key reagent for development of radioimmunoassay (RIA) which exhibits less interference and better sensitivity than other immunoassays. Since AfB1 lacks suitable functional groups for radiolabeling, an oxime derivative of AfB1 was synthesised and evaluated by UV-spectrophotometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy. 125I-histamine was conjugated to AfB1 oxime by mixed anhydride method and purified by solvent extraction followed by TLC. The tracer obtained was immunoreactive, stable as ethanolic solution and could be used in RIA.
Amorphous to crystalline transformation in Cu60Ti40 alloy has been studied under conditions of constant heating rate experiments, using XRD and DSC. In the high temperature
XRD experiment, the transformation has been monitored continuously as the integrated X-ray intensity corresponding to a chosen
reflection from one of the two crystalline products forming at close by temperatures. Differentiation of the curve thus obtained
gives the transformation rate curve which passes through a maximum. From the peak shift with heating rate, the activation
energy for the formation of Cu3Ti2 crystalline phase has been obtained. The results have been compared with those obtained by DSC.
Movement and abstraction of groundwater in the geological formations are dependent on the hydro-geological parameters of the aquifers. The purpose of any aquifer test is to determine the hydro-geological parameters. Among the basic parameters are the specific storage, permeability and leakage coefficients. The hydro-geological parameters are hidden in the field test data and their identification is possible using the available physically plausible models suitable for the prevailing field circumstances. In this context, a generalized theoretical solution for the effect of partial penetration superimposed over the full penetration on draw-down in a large-diameter well in artesian aquifer discharging at a constant rate has been presented for non-dimensional quantities describing the variable geometries of wells. The well-function curves are developed by varying the percentage amount of drilling and the percentage amount of casing lowered which then control to vary the percentage amount of open-hole or screened interval for the three categories: when the diameter of the cased interval in which the water level changes is greater than, equal to, and less than the diameter of the open interval. The skin effect and the effect of leakage are neglected. A comparison of results with the published works has also been presented. The present study is useful in such areas where wells are located either in harder or in collapsible loose formations; and a decision is required that, at the planning, construction, or development stage, as to what extent the amount of drilling be reduced, and/or an additional amount of casing be lowered within the aquifer. Also this reduces the cost of well construction and development in a specific situation.
Several human tumors such as neuroendocrine tumors, medullary thyroid carcinoma, etc., express somatostatin receptors which
specifically bind somatostatin and its analogues such as lanreotide, octreotide, etc. In order to prepare a therapeutic agent
for targeting such tumors, attempts were made to prepare 90Y-DOTA-Lanreotide. Lanreotide could be successfully conjugated with the macrocyclic chelating agent DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraaza
cyclododecane tetracetic acid) which forms stable complexes with 90Y. 90Y-DOTA-Lanreotide could be prepared in >98% radiochemical purity and remained stable for 72 hours at room temperature. The
tracer showed specific binding to A431 cells. Biodistribution studies in C57BL6 mice bearing melanoma showed ∼1.3% uptake
pergram of tumor at 24-hour p.i.
Pyrazinamide (PZA), a medication for tuberculosis, has high aqueous solubility and low permeability, undergoes extensive liver metabolism, and exhibits liver toxicity through its metabolites. To avoid this, PZA in lipid core-shell nanoarchitectonics has been formulated to target lymphatic uptake and provide metabolic stability to the incorporated drug. The UPLC-MS/MS method for reliable in vitro quantitative analysis of pyrazinamide (PZA) in lipid core-shell nanoarchitectonics as per ICH guidance was developed and validated using the HILIC column. The developed UPLC-MS/MS method is a simple, precise, accurate, reproducible, and sensitive method for the estimation of PZA in PZA-loaded lipid core-shell nanoarchitectonics for the in vitro determination of % entrapment efficiency, % loading of pyrazinamide, and microsomal stability of lipid core-shell nanoarchitectonics in human liver microsomes. The % entrapment efficiency was found to be 42.72% (±12.60). Lipid nanoarchitectonics was found to be stable in human liver microsomes, where %QH was found to be 6.20%, that is, low clearance. Thus, this formulation is suitable for preventing PZA-mediated extensive liver metabolism. These findings are relevant for the development of other lipid-mediated, suitable, stable nanoformulations containing PZA through various in vitro methods.
Lanreotide, a somatostatin analogue, was radioiodinated with 125I to explore the possibility of using 123I labeled lanreotide as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical for tumors overexpressing somatostatin (SST) receptors. Radioiodination
was carried out with 125I using chloramine T as the oxidant. The labeling yield was >90%. Characterization of 125I-Lanreotide was carried out by paper electrophoresis as well as HPLC. 125I-Lanreotide was purified by chromatography using a C18 Sep-Pak column. Radiochemical purity of the purified 125I-Lanreotide thus obtained was >99%. Significant tumor uptake of 125I-Lanreotide was observed in C57BL/6 mice bearing melanoma.
bioaccumulation of 198Au radionuclide, by Rhizocloniumriparium
a member of Chlorophyceae has been studied. It has been observed that
accumulation of gold on Rhizoclonium is almost pH independent and
slightly higher at basic pH. Accumulation of gold was studied with 198Au
radiotracer, 0.1, 1 and 5 ppm concentrations of gold. It has been concluded
from the biochemical analysis that the gold accumulation is due to adsorption
in the cellulose and not in protein, fat and carbohydrate. Accumulated gold was
recovered when washed with conc. HNO3.