Authors:S. Landsberger, M. S. Basunia, and S. Schroit
We have determined nineteen trace elements in 685 aerosol filter samples collected during 1964-1978 in northern Finland by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. In this paper we present some procedures and results for very short (~25 s), short (~3-54 min), and medium (12-35 h) lived isotopes as determined by epithermal NAA in conjunction with and without Compton suppression. Elements with a Iγ/σthratio are favorable to be determined by epithermal NAA. Silver was determined by a one minute epithermal irradiation because of a very short 110Ag half-life. Antimony, arsenic, cobalt, bromine, indium, iodine, potassium, silicon, tin, tungsten, and zinc were determined by a ten minute epithermal irradiation. For silver determination, samples were counted without transferring the filter from the irradiated vial, however, for ten minute irradiation all samples were transferred to a non-irradiated vial and counted both in the normal and Compton mode by the HPGe gamma-spectrometry system with a decay time of about 10 minutes and counting time of 15 minutes. Each day a maximum of 16 samples were irradiated and immediately following the short counting, these samples were loaded into an automatic sample changer in sequence of irradiation and counted for an hour in both normal and Compton modes. This has proven to be an extremely cost effective measure thus reducing the need to employ long-lived NAA to analyze other elements such as Ag, Co, Sn and Zn and Ag for air pollution source receptor modeling.
Authors:S. Landsberger, M. Kaminski, M. Basunia, and F. Iskander
During the past decade there has been a great emphasis on using multielemental methods to determine heavy metals in solid waste products arising from various industrial, combustion, municipal and mining activities. Furthermore, the study of the leaching characteristics of these solid wastes is of prime importance for environmental and regulatory considerations. We present an overview of neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for the analysis of solid wastes and leachates. In particular we discuss several matrix problems that are usually not considered in routine NAA measurements.
Authors:N. Molla, S. Hossain, S. Basunia, R. Miah, M. Rahman, D. Sikder, and M. Chowdhury
The concentration of rare earths and other elements have been determined in the bed sediment samples of Karnafuli estuarine zone in the Bay of Bengal by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples and the standards soil-5, soil-7, coal fly ash and pond sediment were prepared and simultaneously irradiated for short and long time at the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor facility of Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka. The maximum themal neutron flux was of the order of 1013 n·cm–2·s–1. After irradiation the radioactivity of the product nuclides was measured by using a high resolution high purity germanium detector system. Analysis of -ray spectra and quantitative analysis of the elemental concentration were done via the software GANAAS, it has been possible to determine the concentration level of 27 elements including the rare earths La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb and uranium and thorium.
Authors:S. Landsberger, S. R. Biegalski, D. J. O’Kelly, and M. S. Basunia
In the last decade Compton suppressed neutron activation analysis has had increasing popularity as a powerful method to significantly lower backgrounds and reduce overlapping peaks caused by spectral or nuclear interferences. We give a detailed descriptive evaluation of the unique features of this technique and its usefulness in many areas of research employing non-destructive neutron activation analysis.