The authors’ aim is to reveal the reflection of Hungarian political and economic transformation in the public health nutrition during the last two and a half decades. Results of the four representative, nationwide dietary surveys completed in this period have been analysed for macro-, micronutrient intakes and overweight/obesity. The food consumption-related vital statistics provided by Hungarian Central Statistical Office were also analysed and compared. There are certain signs of favourable improvements: slight decrease of energy intake in females, growing share of plant protein, less saturated, more polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, less sugar. These findings are in parallel with some positive general statistical issues: the extension of life expectancy, lesser acute myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and stomach cancer mortality, more vegetables and fruit, lesser lard, more oil consumption. On the other hand, there are several detrimental nutritional issues that influence the health status of Hungarian population: still high energy, fat and cholesterol intake, low complex carbohydrates, too much sodium (salt), insufficiencies in some vitamin, macro- and microelements intake. The number of overweight/obese people takes up fairly high level. The surveys somewhat revealed the role of nutrition in the health status of population and now a particle of possibility for its improvement is available
The degree of soil pollutants in the Dunaújváros area has been monitored regularly at 10 sampling points of the town from the upper 0–20 cm and lower 20–40 cm layers of the soils. The quantity of some organic (PAH, TPH) and inorganic (toxic metal) pollutants were determined by GC-MS and ICP analyzation. Microbial status, such as the total cultivable bacteria (CFU) and total catabolic enzyme activity, measured by fluorescein diacetate analysis (FDA) were also estimated. The area of the industrial town could be divided into more and less contaminated regions, although the measured pollutants were far below the estimated permissible limits. However, at some of the more polluted soils even triple amounts of contaminants could be measured compared to the lesscontaminated sites. Among inorganics the Zn microelement reached the highest levels (average is about 100 mg·kg−1 soil), which could be related to the heavy industrial activity. A positive correlation appeared among the organic and inorganic pollutants and also between the pollutants and the measured enzymatic values. The enhanced FDA activity was found at the most contaminated sites preceding the potential “loss of function” on a long-term basis. The fast and reliable microbial parameter could be suggested as further regular monitoring tool.
In 2009 Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) performed a countrywide representative dietary survey to obtain food consumption data for quantitative food safety risk assessment utilizable in the field of public health nutrition as well. The consumption of foodstuffs, daily energy- and nutrient intakes, nutritional habits and dietary supplement usage of Hungarian population was assessed. The complex system has included three-day dietary record and a food consumption frequency questionnaire. Some anthropometric parameters were also self-recorded. According to the body mass index, a considerable proportion of both the 31–60 years old males (69%) and females (46%) were overweight or obese. The energy intake of the Hungarian adult population is slightly exceeds the recommendation. The intake of proteins is satisfactory in general. The average intake of total fats is very high (36.1–38.9 energy percent), and the fatty acid composition — mostly the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids — is unfavourable, but the fatty acid pattern regarding saturated- (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid ratio shows favourable tendency. The proportion of complex carbohydrates within the intake of energy providing macronutrients is far lower than the optimal level, but it is a positive finding that added sugar intake is below the outmost recommendation. The average daily cholesterol intake is high (males: 469 mg, females: 335 mg), whilst the dietary fibre intake is lower than the recommended. The article provides data on alcohol, caffeine and fibre consumption, too.
The fourth countrywide nutrition survey was initiated and co-ordinated by the Hungarian Food Safety Office jointly to the yearly Household Budget Survey of Hungarian Central Statistical Office in 2009. The dietary assessment was performed by trained interviewers and skilled dieticians using a complex questionnaire system, containing three-day diary, short food frequency questionnaire and questions on taking of dietary supplements and on prevalence of food allergy. The data records were processed and the questionnaires were validated, the results obtained on the micronutrient intakes of the adult population are shown in this article. From fat soluble vitamins, the average daily intakes of vitamins A and D were lower than the national recommendations in case of both genders, meaning low intake for around 60% (in case of retinol) and 80–90% (in case of calciferols) of adults. The intakes of some water soluble vitamins belonging to B group, vitamin C and folates were low as well. Regarding the macroelements, the most important health problem on population level is the extremely high sodium load of the inhabitants, combined with unfavourable sodium/potassium ratio. The average daily calcium intake of every age and gender group was far below the recommended value. The average daily intake of iron was low for the 50% of adult females. The article also provides data on frequency of food supplement taking habits of inhabitants and of self-reported food allergy.
Let be a real irrational number and A =(xn) be a sequence of positive integers. We call A a characterizing sequence of or of the group Z mod 1 if lim n 2A n !1 k k =0 if and only if 2 Z mod 1. In the present paper we prove the existence of such characterizing sequences, also for more general subgroups of R = Z . Inthespecialcase Z mod 1 we give explicit construction of a characterizing sequence in terms of the continued fraction expansion of. Further, we also prove some results concerning the growth and gap properties of such sequences. Finally, we formulate some open problems.
Due to its nearly 1.5 million ha extension and the aimed fine mapping resolution, classical vegetation mapping was not suitable method to prepare the habitat map of Duna-Tisza köze region (Hungary). We developed a novel mapping method. By this method the actual status of more than 12,000 patches of semi-natural vegetation was recorded, documented previously as grasslands, wetlands, open forests and grasslands with scattered trees and shrubs in the middle of the 1980s. A digital layer of 272,387 ha at 1 : 25,000 resolution was created as the background of the analysis. Vegetation type was classified at 46,930 points in the mapping area. The collaboration of 59 colleagues resulted in the development of the digital geographical database of the study area (D-TMap GIS Point database). One-third of the data relies on field data, while the other two-thirds on satellite interpretation. Landscape pattern and the accuracy of the statistical data of the habitats, generated from the point database, are improved by the polygonised version of the point database (D-TMap GIS Polygon database). In this paper we show how the GIS Point database was generated, and summarise the ecological content, availability, and limitation of the derived point and polygon based actual habitat maps. Analysis of the database and the landscape scale pattern of the habitats are discussed in a further paper.
As a result of the groundwater level decline observed in the last two decades and the socio-economic changes, we assume that a drastic alteration begins in the landscape pattern of Danube-Tisza Interfluve (Duna-Tisza köze, Kiskunság s. l.). It demands the documentation of the actual state of vegetation in this region, and its quantitative analysis, as well. In the first of the two articles presenting our results we discuss the regional habitat-pattern of the landscape, the background factors determining it, and the basic features of fen and alkali vegetation. In the second part, this will be completed by the sand, riverine and steppe vegetation and the data on habitat-devastation on the regional scale.During our study we determined the Danube-Tisza Interfluve (with a total extension of nearly 1.4 million ha) in the geographical sense. The analysis of the present habitat-pattern of the region was based on data of the actual (1996–2000) habitat map of Danube-Tisza Interfluve (Molnár
2000) and on our experience during the field survey. We compared our data to surface-geographical, pedological and hydrological works, to maps from the 18–19th centuries on land-use, to botanical studies accomplished in the 19–20th centuries and to the results of other related sciences. The quantitative analysis of the vegetation pattern was carried out considering the vegetation subregions.About half (49.4%) of the surveyed, not cultivated habitats of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve is in a natural, semi-natural state, and nearly a quarter of them (23.8%) is essentially disturbed or under deep human impact. During the one- and-a-half decades between the topographical mapping of the mid-1980s and the habitat mapping (D-TMap), 14.7% of the surveyed habitats disappeared, and appr. 12.1% is now in the state of regeneration after the disturbance of the distant or the recent past. Today, fen vegetation (including the vegetation of non-alkali swamps and uncharacteristic fen vegetation that is drying out at present) is predominant among the studied habitats of the region (it covers 95,135 ha), that is followed by alkali vegetation with an extension of about half of the former one (47,226 ha).The joint vegetation categories (sand, fen, alkali and riverine vegetation) of the region compose vegetation zones running north and south. So, on the two sides of the Sand Ridge vegetation zones dominated by fen habitats lie, which is followed by the zone of alkali habitats; finally, the riverine vegetation prevails along the rivers Danube and Tisza. From the abiotic factors determining these zones we emphasised the hydrodynamic characteristics — that play recently the most essential role. As a result of the analysis of landscape pattern, it became obvious, that the natural habitats — similarly to the hydraulically continuous groundwater flow systems — of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve compose hierarchical systems, basically on three different levels (on the local, intermediate and regional scale). In this point of view, those areas are considered as a certain system, where the underground water flow (recharge, throughflow and discharge) forms a uniform flow system. We approached to the survey of the actual vegetation of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve with this viewpoint of the hierarchically structured habitat pattern.
Actual distribution maps of vegetation types are important data sources of basic and applied research, respectively. Though there were several attempts to map the actual vegetation of Hungary, the MÉTA program was the first to map all the (semi-)natural habitat types on the whole territory of Hungary. The paper discusses the woodland and shrubland habitats. 41 habitats are presented and discussed. The paper provides additional data on the area and distribution of the habitats mainly at the physical geographical macroregion scale.