Ground tire rubber (GTR) was treated by microwaves
at the same power and at different times of exposure, in order to improve
their recycling characteristics. The resulting materials were characterized
by thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC). DSC analysis showed that the microwaves treatment, specially for longer
exposure times, changes the thermal behavior at low temperatures, that is
to say, changing its glass transition (Tg),
probably due to the modification in the chemical structure of the rubber.
The TG/DTG analysis showed that the thermo-oxidation behavior of the sample
after the microwaves treatment is different from the sample before the treatment.
The thermo-oxidation temperature of the devulcanized rubber is shifted to
lower temperatures, even for the rubber treated in short times.
Fluoride glasses have been extensively studied due to their high transparency in the infrared wavelength. The crystallization
kinetics of these systems has been studied using DTA and DSC techniques. Most of the experimental data is frequently investigated
in terms of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) model in order to obtain kinetic parameters. In this work, DSC technique has been
used to study the crystallization of fluorozirconate glass under non-isothermal conditions. It was found that JMA model was
not fit to be applied directly to these systems, therefore, the method proposed by Mlek has been applied and the Šestk-Berggren
(SB) model seems to be adequate to describe the crystallization process.
Authors:V. Marcilio-Silva, V. D. Pillar, and M. C. M. Marques
Changes in species composition during the succession of ecological communities potentially reflect the differential effects of environmental filters and limiting similarity on structuring communities. As ecological succession can represent community assembly in action, understanding how successional time affects the functional and phylogenetic structure of communities can reveal the influence of different factors on the assembly process. We analysed functional patterns of multiple traits related to the succession of tropical forests to answer if there are trait convergence and/or divergence with regeneration age, and if functional and phylogenetic diversity can be predicted by forest age. We compiled checklists from studies of 23 successional forests in Brazilian Atlantic Forest, ranging from 4 to 120 years old. We also compiled functional traits for a total of 355 species. We analysed the data by a method that includes scaling-up trait-based data to the community level and matrix correlations of multiple traits. We built linear models to show the relationship between each trait and diversity (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic) with successional time. We found no phylogenetic signal at the species pool and metacommunity levels, but significant trait divergence (tree guild, leaf slenderness, leaf area, pollination entomophilous generalist and pollination by vertebrate) and trait convergence (arboreal habitus, tree guild, leaf compoundness, pollination entomophilous generalist) patterns related to the successional gradient. Also, functional diversity increased during succession, with a significant increase in leaf slenderness and zoochoric dispersal and decrease in tree guild. Phylogenetic diversity also increased along the successional gradient. We found that the communities in the studied successional gradient are structured by both environmental (measured by trait convergence) and biotic (measured by trait divergence) filtering. The species turnover and diversification at taxonomic level are followed by well-defined patterns of trait turnover, revealing that community assembly is constrained by environmental filters at the beginning and by limiting similarity at the advanced stages of the succession.
Authors:M. C. D. Silva, L. M. da Silva, N. A. Santos, M. M. Conceição, A. G. Souza, and A. O. dos Santos
Nowadays the growing fuel deficit requires the development of alternative fuel sources. Biodiesel is a good substitute to the conventional diesel because it is quite similar to the fossil fuel in its main characteristics. However, there are some obstacles, as the properties of cold-flow, to the development of a more useful alternative fuel. In this work we use the X-ray diffraction and differential calorimetry scanning to study low temperature properties of ethylic Babassu biodiesel. Our results show that the nucleation of crystals starts below −8 °C and the crystallization temperature does not change significantly when the sample was submitted to a winterization process. The higher concentrations of ethyl esters from saturated fat acid are probably responsible for this characteristic. The X-ray diffraction, combined with DSC measurements, was efficiently employed in the characterization of cold-flow biodiesel properties, showing to be very helpful techniques.
Authors:Rosiane M. C. Farias, Marta M. Conceição, Roberlúcia A. Candeia, Marta C. D. Silva, Valter J. Fernandes Jr., and Antonio G. Souza
The diversity of raw materials and technological routes employed in the biodiesel production has resulted in products with different chemical properties. This non-uniformity in the biodiesel composition may influence to the fuel quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate biodiesel blends of passion fruit and castor oil in different proportions and their thermal stability. Biodiesel blends of passion fruit and castor oil presented parameters in the standards of the Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels National Agency. The TG curves indicated that castor oil biodiesel was more stable. Passion fruit biodiesel has a high content of oleic and linoleic acids, which are more susceptible to oxidation. Biodiesel blend of passion fruit and castor oil 1:1 increased the thermal stability in relation to passion fruit biodiesel. Biodiesel blend of passion fruit and castor oil 1:2 presented higher thermal stability, because castor oil has a high content of ricinoleic acid.
Authors:Romulo D. A. Andrade, Elaine A. Faria, Amaury M. Silva, Wandallas C. Araujo, Gustavo C. Jaime, Kenia P. Costa, and Alexandre G. S. Prado
The Brazilian government has presented a biofuel program, which aims the addition of 2% of biofuel in fossil diesel in 2008 and 5% up to 2013. Thus, the knowledge of heat of combustion of biofuel/diesel blends is necessary. The biodiesel was produced by transesterification of soybean oil with a yield of 87%. The diesel-like was obtained by pyrolysis of soybean oil. This biofuel presented all parameters according to ANP. The obtained heats of combustion were 41.36 ± 0.17; 38.70 ± 0.16; and 36.71 ± 0.17 MJ/kg for diesel, diesel-like and biodiesel, respectively. The results show that the heats of combustion of biofuels are approximately 17% smaller than fossil diesel. The obtained data also show that the heats of combustion depend on the methodology used for the biofuel production. Addition of biofuels to traditional diesel fuel results in a linear decreasing of the heat of combustion with the amount of the alternative fuel added to the diesel.
Authors:C. M. Silva, R. S. Amaral, A. Amaral, J. A. Santos Júnior, D. C. Santos, L. E. Lima, and S. V. Silveira
Studies performed by the Brazilian Nuclear Corporation (NUCLEBRAS), in collaboration with the Geological Survey Company of
Brazil (CPRM), identified high levels of natural uranium in the districts of Pedra and Venturosa, in the rural region of the
state of Pernambuco (PE) - Brazil, where the maximum value found in rocks was 22,000 mg.
Authors:M. A. S. Silva, R. G. Kelmann, T. Foppa, A. P. Cruz, C. D. Bertol, T. Sartori, A. Granada, F. Carmignan, and F. S. Murakami
The thermal behaviour of fluoxetine hydrochloride and five capsules available in Florianópolis, Brazil was investigated. The raw material’s purity, kinetic parameters, thermal behaviour and melting characteristics were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, as well as the thermal study of the capsules. The purity was 99.12±0.15%. The thermal decomposition followed a zero order kinetic, activation energy of 88.67 kJ mol−1 and frequency factor of 3.539·107 min−1. DSC curves obtained from the capsules suggest compatibility between the drug and excipient.