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Abstract  

Uranium(VI) reacts with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol to form a red-coloured chelate in the pH range 5.3–7.2, maintained by 0.04 M acetate buffer. Absorbance of the sparingly soluble complex, solubilized and stabilized by Triton X-100, is measured after 30 min and it is stable for at least 16 hours. The complex exhibits maximum absorbance at 575 and 625–630 nm, but absorbance at longer wavelengths is not stable. The 12 complex obeys Beer's law over the concentration range 0.4–6.4 g of uranium(VI) per cm3, has molar absorptivity 3.36·104 dm3·mol–1·cm–1, Sandell sensitivity 7.0 ng·cm–2, formation constant (log K) 9.32 and coefficient of variation ±0.77%. Effect of 60 ions has been studied and selectivity improved considerably in presence of CDTA. The method has been applied for determination of uranium content in a rock sample.

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Abstract  

The extraction of Am(III) from nitric, hydrochloric, oxalic, phosphoric and hydrofluoric acids was studied using 0.4F di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) containing 0.1M phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5) in dodecane/xylene. The extraction with pure 0.4F HDEHP was found to be negligible from all the media studied. However, the presence of a small amount of P2O5 in it increased the extraction substantially. The distribution ratios of Am(III) obtained for HDEHP - P2O5 mixture 3M nitric acid containing different concentrations of oxalic acid/phosphoric acid/hydrofluoric acid are in the order of 200-250. The same for 3M hydrochloric acid is very high (800). These distribution ratios are sufficiently high for the quantitative extraction of Am(III) from all the acid media studied. Different reagents such as ammonium oxalate, sodium oxalate, oxalic acid, hydrofluoric acid, sodium carbonate and potassium sulphate were explored for the back extraction of Am(III) from 0.4F HDEHP + 0.1M P2O5 in dodecane/xylene. Of these, 0.35M ammonium oxalate and 1M sodium carbonate were found to be most suitable. The back extraction of Am(III) was also attempted with water and 1M H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4 and HCl solutions after allowing the extracted organics to degrade on its own. It was found that more than 90% of Am could be back extracted with these acids. Using this method more than 90% of Am(III) was recovered from nitric acid solutions containing calcium and fluoride ions.

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Abstract  

Distribution ratios of Pu(IV) between 7.5M HNO3+0.75M H3PO4+0.3M H2SO4 media and a macroporous anion-exchange resin Amberlyst A-26 (MP) increased from 40 to 250 when 1M aluminium nitrate was added to the aqueous medium. When 1M ferric nitrate was used in place of aluminium nitrate the distribution ratio further increased to 850. The 10% Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities with a 5 ml bed resin column, using synthetic feed solutions containing 1M aluminium nitrate, were 1.4 g l–1, 3.2 g l–1 at flow rates of 30 ml per hour and 10 ml per hour, respectively. The corresponding 10% Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities in the presence of 1M ferric nitrate were 8.5 g l–1 and 12.8 g l–1. More than 97% of plutonium could be recovered from actual analytical phosphate waste solutions.

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Abstract  

The extraction of Pu(IV) from oxalic acid-nitric acid mixtures has been investigated using a liquid anion exchanger, Aliquat-336, in xylene. The presence of oxalic acid is known to have adverse effects on the extraction of Pu(IV) by Aliquat-336. The use of cations, Al(III), Fe(III) or Zr(IV) was explored to overcome the effect of oxalic acid on Pu(IV) extraction. The data obtained reveal that Pu(IV) is quantitatively extracted by Aliquat-336, even in the presence of oxalic acid, when Al(III), Fe(III) or Zr(IV) is added. The extracted Pu(IV) can be back-extracted using aqueous ammonium carbonate.

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Abstract  

An improved method for the determination of plutonium in an aliquot using cerium/IV/ as an oxidant is reported. Plutonium is oxidized quantitatively to plutonium/VI/ in nitric acid medium by cerium/IV/, the excess of which is chemically destroyed in a single step by hydrochloric acid. Plutonium/VI/ is then reduced to plutonium/IV/ with a known amount of Fe/II/, the excess of which is back titrated potentiometrically with standard dichromate. Results of analysis of 3–5 mg amounts of plutonium in aliquots containing standard plutonium nitrate solution are reliable within 0.2%. Effect of the presence of some relevant foreign ions has been studied. The application of the method for the analysis of mixtures containing various amounts of uranium and plutonium has been examined.

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Abstract  

Sorption of Pu(IV) from sodium carbonate medium has been investigated by using three inorganic ion exchangers, viz. alumina, silica gel and hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). Distribution ratios (D) of Pu(IV) for its sorption on these ion exchangers have been determined. The values are 700, 103 and 104 for alumina, silica gel and hydrous titanium oxide, respectively, from 0.1M sodium carbonate medium. The high distribution ratios indicate their suitability for the removal of Pu(IV) from sodium carbonate waste streams. Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities have been determined with 5 ml bed at a flow rate of 30 ml per hour. The 10% Pu(IV) breakthough capacities for alumina and silica gel are 3 g l–1 and 14 g l–1, respectively. The capacity of HTO is 60 g of Pu(IV) per liter of exchanger at 4% Pu(IV) breakthrough.

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Abstract  

The dissolution of carbide fuels was tried with the aid of various oxidants like H2O2, NaBiO3, (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6, (NH4)2S2O8, and AgO in nitric acid medium. During the dissolution, the carbon dioxide liberated has been measured. Among the oxidants studied, H2O2 and NaBiO3 appeared to be more effective for dissolution of carbides. 200–300 mg of sintered uranium carbide sample dissolved within 15 minutes in the presence of oxidants H2O2 or NaBiO3. Mixed carbide sample (70%) was dissolved within 30 min, whereas plutonium carbide required more than one hour. From the resulting solutions uranium and plutonium could be determined by conventional redox methods. More than 97% of plutonium could be recovered and purified from the resulting carbide solutions by conventionally used anion exchange method.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Charyulu, V. Ramachandhran, Rajendra Swarup, V. Ramakrishna, M. Hanra, V. Venugopal, and B. Mishra

Abstract  

Donnan dialysis and diffusion dialysis techniques are investigated for deacidification and possible concentration of actinide bearing acidic streams. Cation and anion exchange membranes are used in a two compartment dialysis cell to selectively remove acid from americium solutions. Acid concentrations, as high as 8.0M HNO3 are used and the stability of membranes are ascertained. Possibility of simultaneous deacidification and concentration of acidic americium solutions are indicated by combining simple osmosis with diffusion dialysis. All the experiments are carried out under non stirring conditions at room temperature.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Charyulu, I. Pius, A. Kadam, M. Ray, C. Sivaramakrishnan, and S. Patil

Abstract  

Behaviour of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in basic media has been investigated by studying their stabilities and quantitative determination by spectrophotometry. Beer's law was found to be obeyed in the range of 1·10–3 to 5·10–3 M Pu(IV) at 485 nm peak with a molar absorption coefficient of 95M–1· cm–1 in sodium carbonate medium. In case of Pu(VI), in the same medium Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 2·10–3 to 1·10–2M at 550 nm with a molar absorption coefficient of 50M–1·cm–1. Distribution ratios of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) for their sorption on Al2O3 and Amberlyst A-26 (MP) resin from bicarbonate and carbonate media have been determined. High distribution ratios obtained indicate the feasibility of decreasing the plutonium content of basic carbonate streams in reprocessing. 10% breakthrough capacities for Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) with these exchangers during column operations have also been determined.

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Abstract  

Sorption of Pu(IV) from hydrochloric acid-oxalic acid solutions has been investigated using different anion exchangers, viz., Dowex-1X4, Amberlite XE-270 (MP) and Amberlyst A-26 (MP) for the recovery of plutonium from plutonium oxalate solutions. Distribution ratios of Pu(IV) for its sorption on these anion exchangers have been determined. The sorption of Pu(IV) from hydrochloric acid solutions decreases drastically in the presence of oxalic acid. However, addition of aluminium chloride enhances the sorption of plutonium in the presence of oxalic acid, indicating the feasibility of recovery of plutonium. Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities have been determined with a 10 ml resin bed of each of these anion exchangers at a flow rate of 60 ml per hour using a solution of Pu(IV) with the composition: 6M HCl+0.05M HNO3+0.1M H2C2O4+0.5M AlCl3+100 mg.l–1 Pu(IV). The 10% Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities for Dowex-1X4, Amberlite XE-270 (MP) and Amberlyst A-26 (MP) are 15.0, 8.9 and 6.2 g of Pu(IV) l–1 of resin respectively.

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