Histological and electron microscopic examinations of the kidneys of 8 dogs suffering from fatal, naturally acquired
infection and nephropathy are presented. Seven animals were treated with imidocarb dipropionate on average 4.5 days prior to death. Severe anaemia was present only in 2 cases. Degenerative histological changes observed mostly in the proximal convoluted tubules included vacuolar-hydropic degeneration, necrosis and detachment of renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells from the basement membrane. Necrotic debris occasionally formed acidophilic casts within the tubules. In some cases, necrosis of the whole tubule was observed. Haemoglobin casts in the tubules and haemoglobin droplets in RTE cells seldom appeared. No significant histological changes were seen in the glomeruli. Ultrastructural lesions in RTE cells included nuclear membrane hyperchromatosis, karyopyknosis, karyolysis, swelling or collapse of mitochondria with fragmentation of cristae and vacuolar-hydropic degeneration in the endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli. Nuclear oedema was also observed. Many RTE cells exhibiting necrosis collapsed. Vacuolar-hydropic degeneration and necrosis were also observed in the glomerular and interstitial capillary endothelium. The severe acute tubular necrosis described in this study is probably the result of hypoxic renal injury. Systemic hypotension leading to vasoconstriction in the kidneys might be the most important cause of renal hypoxia in
infections, but anaemia may also contribute to inadequate oxygenation. Imidocarb should be applied with caution in patients with possible renal involvement until further data become available on its potential nephrotoxicity in dogs.
Authors:Míra Mándoki, M. Dobos-Kovács, T. Bakonyi and M. Rusvai
Kidney samples from chickens diagnosed with acute nephritis and gout were subjected to histological and electron microscopic examination. The investigations revealed cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the tubular epithelial cells containing round virions of about 30 nm in diameter. Since avian nephritis virus (ANV) is known as a potential causative agent of the so-called baby chick nephropathy, an RT-PCR assay was developed for the molecular detection of ANV-specific nucleic acid in the specimen. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by direct sequencing of the amplicon obtained in the reaction. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product showed 92% identity with the reference ANV sequence deposited in the GenBank database. After having been validated on some other suspicious cases of avian nephritis, the PCR method described in this study can be a potential tool for routine diagnostic examination of samples submitted from cases of gout and nephropathy in chickens.
Authors:M. Dobos-Kovács, E. Horváth, A. Farsang, Edith Nagy, Andrea Kovács, F. Szalai and S. Bernáth
Haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of geese as a new disease was first described in Hungary in 1969. The authors identified the causative agent of the outbreaks occurring in 1969 as a polyomavirus by PCR in 2001. In order to study the pathogenesis of the virus, one-day-old goslings were infected with tissue homogenate that tested positive for polyomavirus by PCR. Morphological, light and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examinations have revealed that goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus replicates in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels and capillaries of diseased birds. Infection causes damage and necrosis of the endothelial cells. The virus was not observed in the parenchymal cells. Oedema and haemorrhages found throughout the body may be due to the dysfunction or functional deficiency of endothelial cells damaged by the virus.
Authors:L. Békési, Brenda V. Ball, M. Dobos-Kovács, T. Bakonyi and M. Rusvai
Viruses of the honey bee have been known for a long time; however, recently the attention of scientists and apiculturalists has turned towards the relationship between these viruses and the parasitic miteVarroa jacobsoni. Although clinical symptoms indicated the presence of some of the viruses of bees in Hungary, none have previously been isolated or identified. During July unusual adult bee and brood mortality was observed in some colonies of an apiary in Budapest known to be infested withVarroa jacobsoni. Large amounts of acute paralysis virus (APV) were detected serologically in healthy honey bee pupae killed by the injection of a bacteria-free extract of diseased adult bees. Crystalline arrays of 30 nm particles were seen in ultrathin sections of the tissues of injected pupae and naturally infected adult bees. In spite of the application of acaricide treatments the bee population in several colonies had collapsed by the end of summer and the apiary suffered severe wintering losses.
Authors:L. Szeredi, A. Pospischil, L. Dencső, A. Mathis and M. Dobos-Kovács
A Lippizan mare aborted a male fetus a few days before the expected foaling date without showing any clinical sings. Focal lympho-histiocytic hepatitis in the foal and multiplex focal lympho-histiocytic villitis accompanied by villus necroses and marked hypertrophy of chorionic epithelial cells in the arcades were observed. Elongated nucleated organisms were seen in groups in vacuoles or solitarily located in the cytoplasm of the chorionic epithelial cells. The organisms were in large numbers and often extracellularly in areas of villitis and villus necroses. They were Gram-positive, stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Giemsa, weakly with Warthin-Starry silver stain but not with Gömöri’s methenamine-silver stain. By ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examinations, the organisms were identified as microsporidia belonging to the genus
organisms were detected in the fetal organs. This is the first reported case of equine abortion induced by
sp. in Europe. Although abortion induced by
is rare, microsporidia should be considered a differential diagnosis for intracellular organisms observed in the chorionic epithelial cells of horses.
Authors:A. Farsang, L. Makranszki, M. Dobos-Kovács, Györgyi Virág, Katalin Fábián, Tímea Barna, G. Kulcsár, L. Kucsera and F. Vetési
An outbreak of the atypical form of myxomatosis struck a rabbit farm in Hungary. The animals had previously been vaccinated with a vaccine containing Shope rabbit fibroma virus strain. The disease appeared in winter when the presence of mosquitoes and fleas is not common. The virus was isolated from an eyelid specimen of a naturally infected rabbit. The surviving animals were observed for four weeks, blood samples were collected and, after euthanasia, organ specimens were also examined by morphological methods including pathology and electron microscopy. Serum samples were examined by virus neutralisation for antibodies. Genetic analysis of the isolated virus was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. The primers were designed on the basis of the major envelope gene (Env) of the Lausanne reference strain in the GenBank. The viral proteins were examined by SDS-PAGE. The isolated virus (ref. no.: BP04/2001) was able to infect the susceptible animals directly, by contact. The disease was characterised by respiratory symptoms of the upper tracheal tract, conjunctivitis and high mortality by the 11th-14th day. Aerogenic infection with strain BP04/2001 resulted in 100% morbidity among the susceptible animals. Sequencing of the amplified 400-bp-long DNA revealed 97% homology with the Env gene of the Lausanne strain, which proves that strain BP04/2001 is a variant of the Lausanne strain having been enzootic throughout Europe. The live vaccine strain used in Hungary against myxomatosis, which is also a Lausanne-derived strain, protected the animals. According to the protein analysis a protein of 200 kDa in size is not expressed in strain BP04/2001. This is the first report on atypical myxomatosis in Central Europe. The virus spreads by airborne transmission and may cause severe losses in the rabbit population.
Authors:Éva Ivanics, M. Dobos-Kovács, R. Glávits, Éva Kaszanyitzky, Cs. Nemes, L. Szeredi, Anikó Beregszászi and L. Dencső
Ten one-day-old goslings were inoculated orally with a
strain isolated from the large intestine of geese that had died of intestinal spirochaetosis (Group A), 10 day-old goslings were inoculated orally with a
strain (Group B), and a third group of 10 goslings (Group C) served as uninfected control. The goslings were observed daily for clinical signs. They were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 21 and 35 days postinfection (PI), and necropsied. Segments of the large intestine were subjected to histopathological, immunohistochemical, electron microscopic (TEM, SEM) and microbiological examinations. Mortality did not occur during the experimental period. However, in both groups the caecum of the goslings killed by bleeding was slightly dilated, in its lumen there was a watery, yellowish and frothy content, and the mucous membrane was slightly swollen. By histopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic examination,
could be detected in the caecum or colon, in the lumen of the glands and sometimes among the glandular epithelial cells in goslings of the respective groups, and could be reisolated from these organs by culturing. A mild inflammation of the intestinal mucosa was also noted. In transverse section of the brachyspirae, numerous (16–22) periplasmic flagella could be detected inside the outer sheath, also depending on the plane of section.
Authors:Gábor Skaliczki, M. Weszl, K. Schandl, T. Major, M. Kovács, J. Skaliczki, H. Redl, M. Szendrői, K. Szigeti, D. Máté, Cs Dobó-Nagy and Zs Lacza
Purpose: The clinical demand for bone grafting materials necessitated the development of animal models. Critical size defect model has been criticized recently, mainly for its inaccuracy. Our objective was to develop a dependable animal model that would provide compromised bone healing, and would allow the investigation of bone substitutes. Methods: In the first group a critical size defect was created in the femur of adult male Wistar rats, and a non-critical defect in the remaining animals (Groups II, III and IV). The defect was left empty in group II, while in groups III and IV a spacer was interposed into the gap. Osteoblast activity was evaluated by NanoSPECT/CT imaging system. New bone formation and assessment of a union or non-union was observed by μCT and histology. Results: The interposition model proved to be highly reproducible and provided a bone defect with compromised bone healing. Significant bone regeneration processes were observed four weeks after removal of the spacer. Conclusion: Our results have shown that when early bone healing is inhibited by the physical interposition of a spacer, the regeneration process is compromised for a further 4 weeks and results in a bone defect during the time-course of the study.