Advances in science and technology are now at the heart of the global economy, but the number of students earning degrees in the sciences, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields has stalled. According to the National Association for Colleges and Employers (NACE), programs have been initiated nationwide to nurture interest in the sciences, including research competitions, co-ops and internships, and K-12 STEM education. Senior thermal analysis scientists are not only researchers, they are role models, mentors and teachers intimately involved in the recruitment and training of young scientists. The authors present guidelines for thermal analysis research project planning for high school students, undergraduate students and master’s and doctoral candidates. Project planning includes developmentally appropriate techniques, methods, instruments, scope and significance. Case studies illustrate examples of short-term, concrete materials analysis projects tailored to younger student researchers, as well as master’s level projects making significant contributions to the state of the science and innovative doctoral research. In addition to designing projects for students at all levels, senior thermal analysis scientists can use specific teaching and training techniques to help young scientists develop their abilities in the lab and at the podium.
Authors:Libby Yoerg, M. Ellen Matthews, Lakshmi Kaza, Naullage Indika Perera, David W. Ball, John Moran, and Alan T. Riga
Three aldohexose monosaccharides, d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-galactose, were examined by scanning temperature dielectric analysis (DEA) from ambient temperatures through their melts. Phase transitions, including glass transition (Tg) and melting temperature (Tm), were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The monosaccharides were found to exhibit thermally-induced dielectric loss spectra in their amorphous-solid phase before melting. Activation energies for electrical charging of each of the monosaccharides were calculated from an Arrhenius plot of the tan delta (e″/e′, dielectric loss factor/relative permittivity) peak frequency versus reciprocal temperature in Kelvin. The DEA profiles were also correlated with the DSC phase diagrams, showing the changes in electrical behavior associated with solid–solid and solid–liquid transitions.
Authors:Dhruthiman R. Mantheni, M. P. K. Maheswaram, Hany F. Sobhi, Naullage Indika Perera, Alan T. Riga, M. Ellen Matthews, and K. Alexander
Novel dielectric behavior of a linear increase in ionic conductivity prior to melt temperature was observed for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), organic chemicals, amino acids, and carbohydrates. Though, there are solids like polyolefins and long chain organic compounds (tetracosane, pentacosane) which do not exhibit this premelt behavior (i.e., the temperature where the onset of increase in ionic conductivity to melt temperature). We have discovered novel electrical conductivity properties and other physical analytical variations which can lead to unique synthetic routes of certain chemical entities. The above-mentioned unique variations are not related to solid–solid transitions which are quite often observed in pharmaceutical crystalline solids. These new properties are related to amorphous crystalline behavior of a solid. We have also studied the effect of various experimental variables: such as amount of mass tested, applied frequency at a given electric field and heating rate, which results in varying the onset temperature of the increase in ionic conductivity. Melting of the solids was correlated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Activation energies for all the solids were measured in the premelt region using an Arrhenius plot at a specific frequency since we observed changes in the conductivity with frequency. This study focused on frequencies 0.1 to 10 Hz, since the conductivity at these frequencies related to surface analysis. This new physical properties are leading to new electro synthetic procedures to modify or prepare chemicals.