The influence of dietary boron (B) supplementation on some serum parameters and egg-yolk cholesterol was studied in laying hens. A total of 224 eighteen-week-old hens of the Hyline Brown 98 strain were assigned to 7 groups with 4 replicates of 8 hens each after 10 days of adaptation, and they were fed commercial diets supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg (diet) B (H
) for 8 weeks. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels were decreased with all B levels. Except in the group receiving 5 mg/kg B supplementation, decreases were found in serum triglycerides in all groups. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was decreased in the groups receiving 100 mg/kg or higher levels of B. All levels of B supplementation increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity at weeks 21 and 22, while 10 mg/kg or higher levels of B increased serum globulin, urea and egg-yolk cholesterol levels. The results demonstrate that B supplementation at levels exceeding 5 mg/kg affects serum biochemical parameters and increases egg-yolk cholesterol in laying hens.
In this study, fractional excretions (Fe) of sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (PO4) were examined with the aim to demonstrate interactions between fractional excretions of these electrolytes within each period and relate them to electrolyte metabolism in clinically normal cows at different stages of lactation and dry period. The material of this study consisted of 20 clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian cows of the same age and milk yield. Blood and urine samples were collected on 190-200th, 240-250th and 270-280th days of pregnancy and on days 1-7th, 35-45th and 75-85th after calving, altogether 6 times. An increase was observed in FeCa and FeMg during the transition from the lactation to the dry period (p < 0.05), and a decrease in FeCa (p < 0.05), FeMg (p < 0.01) in the 2nd month of the dry period. FePO4 and FeMg, respectively, increased on levels of p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, while FeCa decreased on a level of p < 0.05 after gestation compared to the level before gestation. FeNa and FeK showed a decrease of p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively, between the 1st and 2nd months of the dry period, while after gestation this value showed an increase in FeNa (p < 0.05) and FeK (p < 0.01). FeCl increased significantly (p < 0.05) only from postpartum to the 1st month of lactation. There was a strong positive correlation between FeNa and FeCl in all of the periods. It was concluded that there were significant changes in the Fe of Na, K, Cl, Ca, PO4 and Mg before parturition and during lactation; these changes could have an important role in assessing renal function and electrolyte balance.
Data regarding the association between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and eating disorders (ED) are scarce. Our aim was to investigate whether UPF intake was associated with different ED types in a large population-based study.
43,993 participants (mean age = 51.0 years; 76.1% women) of the French NutriNet-Santé web-cohort who were screened for ED in 2014 via the Sick-Control-One stone-Fat-Food (SCOFF) questionnaire, were included in the analysis. The clinical algorithm ExpaliTM tool was used to identify four ED types: restrictive, bulimic, binge eating, and other (not otherwise specified). Mean dietary intake was evaluated from at least 2 self-administered 24-h dietary records (2013–2015); categorization of food as ultra-processed or not relied on the NOVA classification. The associations between UPF intake (as percent and reflecting mean daily UPF quantity (g/d) within the dietary intake, %UPF) and ED types were evaluated using polytomous logistic regression models.
5,967 participants (13.6%) were categorized as likely ED (restrictive n = 444; bulimic n = 1,575; binge eating n = 3,124; other ED n = 824). The fully-adjusted analyses revealed a positive association between UPF intake and bulimic, binge eating, and other ED: ED risk (odds ratio, OR) for an absolute 10-percentage point incremental increase in %UPF intake were 1.08 (1.01–1.14; P = 0.02), 1.21 (1.16–1.26; P < 0.0001), and 1.11 (1.02–1.20; P = 0.02), respectively. No significant association was detected for restrictive ED.
Discussion and Conclusion
This study revealed an association of UPF intake with different ED types among French adults. Future research is needed to elucidate the direction of the observed associations.