In Parkinson disease Fe and other metals increase in Substantia Nigra(SN) and other basal nuclei. Since Fe can generate citotoxic free radicals,Neuromelanin (NM) could play an important protective role in neurons. In thiswork an original procedure for separation of NM, preparation of samples andanalysis is presented. The determination of SN and its NM elemental contentwas carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Several actionswere taken to reduce the metal contaminations: use of high purity reagents,dissection of tissues with titanium coated tools and adequate processing ofsamples.
The evaluation of the eco-toxic consequences of heavy metals on the biosphere requires assessment of their biological effects.
This involves the determination of the different ionic species and the various chemical forms of each element. For many elements,
the usual electrochemical methods for the analysis of different chemical species do not meet the required sensitivity; ppm
or even ppb concentration ranges represent often the actual content of many matrices. For many elements as Hg, V, Cr, As,
and Se one of the most sensitive method of trace determinations down to the ppb level is the NAA. Unfortunately this method
gives information only on the total number of nuclei present, regardless to their outer structure and chemical forms. In this
work, some examples are given of the feasibility of NAA to the determination of trace amounts of different chemical species
of some heavy metals, when coupled to specific separation procedures.
Authors:V. Maihara, M. Gallorini, and M. Vasconcellos
A radiochemical separation procedure based on chromatographic separation using Chelex-100 in 0.1M HAc-0.1M NH4Ac at pH 4.8 and TDO in 6M HCl, has been developed to determine Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Se, The, U, W and Zn in three biological materials of botanic origin used as SRM's: 1547 Peach Leaves, 1515 Apple Leaves and the new proposed material Spinach. The aim was to obtain more information for these elements whose values are not yet determined or are given only as suggested values.
Potentially toxic metals in the food chain that can lead to deleterious effects on human health have been well documented.
Because of the toxicity of some metals, levels of 1 ppm or less must be routinely monitored in foods to ensure human safety.
To ensure the accuracy of measurement, NBS in a cooperative interagency agreement with the Food and Drug Administration is
involved in developing and certifying selected elements in food grain as a part of the Standard Reference Material program.
Both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis were used to analyze two food grain standard reference materials
(Rice and Wheat Flours) for trace element certification.
Authors:M. Gallorini, M. Bonardi, C. Birattari, F. Groppi, and S. Saponaro
High specific activity radiotracers, used in studies related to trace elements and human health, must be characterized by the following specific requirements: (i) high specific activity (activity/mass of isotopic carrier), (ii) high activity concentration (activity/volume or mass of substrate), (iii) radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purities, (iv) biological compatibility (physiological pH, sterility and physiological values). For this purpose, selective radiochemical separations and quality control procedures have been developed and tested at our laboratories for the production of several NCA radiotracers.
Authors:M. Gallorini, P. Borroni, M. Bonardi, and A. Rolla
The atmospheric particulate of industrialized cities had become a mixture of potentially toxic substances whose concentrations
must be monitored to assess the pollution levels. Trace metals and elements are part of these pollutants and the knowledge
of their total concentration in the air as well as their distribution in the different aerosol particle sizes is necessary
to evaluate the pollution risk in terms of maximum present levels and long term exposure. In the present work, a preliminary
part of a study initiated for monitoring the trace element levels present in the atmospheric particulate of the city of Milan
(north Italy) and of its suburban areas is presented. More than 25 elements have been determined in Milan downtown along a
period of three years and in different weather conditions. The granulometric distribution of selected potentially toxic elements
(such as vanadium, lead, cadmium, nickel) has been also determined to evaluate their concentrations in different inhalable
fractions (alveolar and bronchial — tracheal). Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used for the determination
of the great part of the elements while Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS) has been employed for the
determination of lead and, in some cases, for nickel, cadmium and copper.
Authors:M. Gallorini, C. Birattari, M. Bonardi, L. Magon, and E. Sabbioni
High specific activity radiotracers are very suitable for studies related to the toxicological impact of trace elements onto human health. In order to investigate the metabolic behaviour of Low Level Exposure (LLE) to trace elements, it is necessary to carry out in-vitro and in-vivo experiments with tracers whose concentration is of the same order of magnitude as the present environmental exposure values (ng-g/kg day). Preparations, separations and purifications of some No Carrier Added (NCA) radiotracers (48V,95m,96Tc,195m,g,197m,gHg,199Au,202Tl) produced by either cyclotron or nuclear reactor irradiation, are presented and discussed. This work reviews the more recent advances in this field carried out by our groups.
Authors:M. Gallorini, E. Orvini, L. Goetz, R. Pietra, and E. Sabbioni
A pyrolysis-neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure has been developed and applied to the speciation of arsenic in solid biological samples. The method involves the retention of the inorganic arsenic in the pyrolysis boat by the addition of NaOH, the volatilization and trapping of the organic arsenic on a cation exchange resin and the subsequent NAA of the resin for the determination of the trapped arsenic. The method, developed with the aid of radiochemically labelled arsenic compounds, has been applied to the determination of the ratio of inorganic to organic arsenic species in commercical shrimps as well as in NBS standard reference materials such as oysters and orchard leaves. The results show different relative amounts of inorganic arsenic content in the samples analysed. In the shrings the fraction of inorganic arsenic was of the order of 20%, in the oysters the inorganic arsenic consfituted 60% of the total arsenic concentration while in the samples of vegetable origin more than 98% of the arsenic was of inorganic nature.
Authors:M. Gallorini, N. Genova, E. Orvini, and R. Stella
Multielemental analysis of atmospheric particulates collected on filter paper has been investigated using different radioisotopic
exciting sources. Quantitative determinations for zinc and lead during a one year period are reported.
Authors:R. Pietra, E. Sabbioni, M. Gallorini, and E. Orvini
Twenty-two radiochemical separation procedures for neutron activation analysis (NAA) of environmental and biological samples are presented. They are currently applied in the context of trace metal research related to the protection of the environment and human health. The radiochemical procedures are related to the separations of the elements into groups which allow the determination of up to 50 elements in each sample or to specific separations for single elements. The experience gained in the application of these radiochemical separations over more than ten years allows us to consider them as reliable for sensitive determinations of trace metals in environmental and biological samples.