The enthalpies of solution in water of L--methionine and its zinc complexes Zn(Met)Cl2, Zn(Met)2Cl2·2H2O, Zn(Met)(NO3)2·1/2H2O, Zn(Met)3(NO3)2·H2O and Zn(Met)SO4·H2O have been measured at 298.15 K. The standard enthalpy of formation of met(aq) has been calculated. The experimental results have been discussed.
Pentaerythritol diphosphonate melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin salt, a novel cheap macromolecular intumescent flame retardants
(IFR), was synthesized, and its structure was a caged bicyclic macromolecule containing phosphorus characterized by IR. Epoxy
resins (EP) were modified with IFR to get the flame retardant EP, whose flammability and burning behavior were characterized
by UL 94 and limiting oxygen index (LOI). 25 mass% of IFR were doped into EP to get 27.2 of LOI and UL 94 V-0.
The thermal properties of epoxy resins containing IFR were investigated with thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry
(DTG). Activation energy for the decomposition of samples was obtained using Kissinger equation. The resultant data show that
for EP containing IFR, compared with EP, IFR decreased mass loss, thermal stability and Rmax, increased the char yield. The activation energy for the decomposition of EP is 230.4 kJ mol−1 while it becomes 193.8 kJ mol−1 for EP containing IFR, decreased by 36.6 kJ mol−1, which shows that IFR can catalyze decomposition and carbonization of EP.
Complexes of cell–THPC–urea–ADP with transition metal ion Co2+ and lanthanide metal ions such as La3+, Ce4+, Nd3+ and Sm3+ have been prepared. The thermal behavior and smoke suspension of the samples are determined by TG, DTA, DTG and cone calorimetry.
The activation energies for the second stage of thermal degradation have been obtained by following Broido equation. Experimental
data show that for the complexes of cell–THPC–urea–ADP with the metal ions, the activation energies and thermal decomposition
temperatures are higher than those of cell–THPC–urea–ADP, which shows these metal ions can increase the thermal stability
of cell–THPC–urea–ADP. Moreover, these lanthanide metal ions can more increase thermal stability of samples than do the transition
metal ion Co2+. The cone calorimetry data indicate that the lanthanide metal ions, similar to transition metal Co2+, greatly decrease the smoke, CO and CO2 generation of cell–THPC–urea–ADP, which can be used as smoke suppressants.
one of the most flammable materials, was treated with various compounds containing
nitrogen, phosphorus, halogens, and boron. For a study of flame retardance
from the standpoint of thermal degradation, the samples were subjected to
thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential
thermogravimetry (DTG) in nitrogen to determine if there were any characteristic
correlations between thermal degradation behaviors and the level of flame
retardance. From the resulting data, kinetic parameters for different stages
of thermal degradation are obtained using the method of Broido. The energies
of activation for the decomposition of samples are found to be from 72 to
109 kJ mol–1. For wood and modified wood,
the char yields are found to increase from 10.2 to 30.2%, LOI from 18 to 36.5,
which indicates that the flame retardance of wood treated with compounds is
improved. The flame retardant mechanism of different compounds has also been
The thermal decomposition behaviour of the complexes of rare earth metals with histidine: RE(His)(NO3)3
H2O (RE=La—Nd, Sm—Lu and Y; His=histidine) was investigated by means of TG-DTG techniques. The results indicated that the thermal decomposition processes of the complexes can be divided into three steps. The first step is the loss of crystal water molecules or part of the histidine molecules from the complexes. The second step is the formation of alkaline salts or mixtures of nitrates with alkaline salts after the histidine has been completely lost from the complexes. The third step is the formation of oxides or mixtures of oxides with alkaline salts. The results relating to the three steps indicate that the stabilities of the complexes increase from La to Lu.
Extracts from lo-han-kuo (Siraitia grosvenorii) are of high sweetness and low calories, and they have been widely used as a natural sweetener to reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes. In the current study, lo-han-kuo extracts were extracted using subcritical water under different operation condition. The study revealed that the optimal extracting parameters were: extraction time of 20 min, extraction temperature of 140 °C, and the addition of 15% ethanol. Antioxidant activity, contents of total flavonoids, and total phenolic compounds of lo-han-kuo extracts were also investigated. A mathematical model was established to describe the relationship between antioxidant capacity and content of bioactive components in lo-han-kuo extract, and it was found that antioxidant capacity of the extracts was mainly attributed to the yields of total mogrosides (P<0.05).
Authors:J. Xu, C. Tian, Z. Ma, M. Gao, H. Guo, and Z. Yao
The effects of some kinds of metal ions used as chemical modifications on the thermal properties of the modified polyacrylonitrile
(PAN) fibers were studied by DTA, TG, GC and cone calorimetry. The apparent activation energies for the decomposition of the
unmodified and modified PAN fibers were determined using Kissinger equation and Broido equation.
Authors:J. Yao, Y. Liu, Z. Gao, P. Liu, M. Sun, S. Qu, and Z. Yu
A microcalorimetric technique based on the bacterial heat-output was explored to evaluate the effect of Mn(II) on Bacillus thuringiensis. The power-time curves of the growth metabolism of B. thuringiensis and the effect of Mn(II) on it were studied using an LKB-2277 BioActivity Monitor, ampoules method, at 28C. For evaluation
of the results, the maximum peak-heat output power (Pmax) in the growth phase, the growth rate constants (k), the log phase heat effects (Qlog ), and the total heat effect in 23 h (QT) for B. thuringiensis were determined. Manganese has been regarded as the essential biological trace element. Mn(II) of different concentration
have different effects on B. thuringiensis growth metabolism. High concentration (800-1600 μg mL-1) of Mn(II) can promote the growth of B. thuringiensis; low concentration (500-800 μg mL-1) can inhabit its growth.
Authors:W.Y. Gao, Y.W. Wang, L.M. Dong, and Z.W. Yu1
A microcalorimeter (Setaram c-80) was used
to study the thermokinetics of the hydration process of calcium phosphate
cement (CPC), a biocompatible biomaterial used in bone repair. The hydration
enthalpy was determined to be 35.8 J g–1
at 37.0°C when up to 80 mg CPC was dissolved in 2 mL of citric buffer.
In the present study, parameters related to time constants of the calorimeter
were obtained by fitting the recorded thermal curves with the function θ=Ae–?t(1– e–?2t).
The real thermogenetic curves were then retrieved with Tian function and the
transformation rate of the hydration process of CPC was found to follow the
The microstructures of the hydrated CPC were examined by scanning electron
microscopy. The nano-scale flake microstructures are due to crystallization
of calcium phosphate and they could contribute to the good biocompatibility
and high bioactivity.
Authors:A. He, M. Ye, Z. Tang, S. Lu, Y. Gu, X. Fan, L. Zhao, and J. Gao
The recombination of hydrogen and oxygen in technical gaseous waste of nuclear power plants in enlarged scale experiment has
been studied on the basis of our previous work.1 The catalyst and its best operating conditions for recombination of hydrogen and oxygen determined in a small scale experiment
were demonstrated and tested. The results show that the data obtained in an enlarged scale experiment agreed well with that
of in a small scale test. The recombination rate of H2 and O2 was higher than 98.3% and 99.98% respectively. After recombination, the residual concentrations of H2 and O2 in waste gas were O2<3 ppm, H2<400 ppm. The Pd-Al2O3 catalyst and operating conditions determined for gaseous waste processing of nuclear power plants were satisfactory.