Authors:H. Mahmoudi, M. Salari, M. Ghayeb Zamharir and M. Ghorbani
A safflower disease was observed in the fields of South Khorasan (Iran) in 2017–2018. Affected plants had extensive fasciation, bushy growth, small leaves, phyllody and shortened internodes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed using universal phytoplasma primers pairs P1/P7, R16mF1/mR1 and M1/M2 to detect putative phytoplasma (s). Nested PCR analyses showed that all symptomatic plants were positive for phytoplasma infection, while asymptomatic plants were negative. Nucleotide sequence analysis and RFLP analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequences indicated that safflower fasciation in Iran was associated with a phytoplasma that belonged to the peanut witches' broom group (16SrII). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that safflowers fasciation phytoplasma (SaP) must be classified in ‘Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia’ (16SrII) taxonomic group. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a phytoplasma associated with safflower fasciation in Iran and the world.
Authors:H. Hosseini, M. Ghorbani, A. Mahoonak and Y. Maghsoudlou
It is believed that lipids are the most important factor affecting nuts shelf-life. In the present study, an accelerated shelf-life testing by means of elevated temperatures 62, 72, and 82 °C was conducted to predict the oxidation stability of walnuts over a long-term storage. Peroxide value (PV) was employed to monitor the lipid oxidation progression in the walnuts. A range of 74.01–79.57 kJ mol−1 K−1 energy was required for formation of primary oxidation products. The reaction changes followed an apparent first-order kinetic. Formation of hydroperoxides in walnut kernels was found to be a temperature-dependent reaction with Q10 of 2.1. Walnut kernels were also kept in normal condition (temp: 20–30 °C; relative humidity (RH): 35–45%) for 12 months to validate the shelf-life estimation approach. The results showed that PV could provide a proper estimation for oxidative stability of the walnuts stored in ordinary condition.
Authors:N. Samadi Ghorbani, M. Mazaheri Tehrani, M.H. Haddad Khodaparast and R. Farhoosh
The aim of the current paper was to elucidate the influence of temperature and time on acrylamide formation and physico-chemical characteristics of bread. Additionally, the effect of asparaginase addition to bran was evaluated. With increasing baking time and temperature, the amount of acrylamide (µg kg−1) increased. The results indicated that the acrylamide concentration in treated samples with asparaginase was significantly less than those without asparaginase treatment. Based on Pearson’ test, it was found that there was a significant correlation between baking temperature and acrylamide concentration (R=0.99, P=0.025; and R=0.98, P=0.026 for the samples prepared by baking for 2.5 min and 3 min, respectively). The firmness of bread samples increased with increasing baking temperature (P>0.05), while asparaginase addition did not significant affect the textural characteristics of the final product. Breads baked at 320 °C for 3 min were more acceptable by the sensory panel in terms of their texture and chewiness, whereas the samples baked at 370 °C for 2.5 min had the lowest score in comparison to other evaluated samples.
Authors:Mir Ali Asghar Mokhtari, H. Moinvaziri, M. R. Ghorbani and M. Mehrpartou
The Kamtal Intrusion is located in Eastern Azarbaijan province, northwestern Iran, near the Armenian border. This body consists of an acidic part of monzogranitic composition, and an intermediate-basic part which is composed of quartz-monzonite and gabbro. The gabbro forms lenses within the intermediate rocks. Monzogranite has been intruded into the quartz-monzonite. Both monzogranites and quartz-monzonites are high-K calk-alkaline and metaluminous in composition and can be classified as I-type granitoids, while the gabbro has tholeiitic affinity.
Monzogranite and quartz-monzonite are characterized by LREE-rich patterns and high LREE/HREE ratios. The similarities of their REE patterns suggest a genetic relationship among these rocks. The geochemical characters of the gabbro types indicate two different patterns: a flat pattern with low LREE/HREE ratio, and a steep pattern with high LREE/HREE ratio. The former was probably produced by high melting ratio of a depleted mantle source, and the steep pattern probably was the result of a low melting ratio of this mantle source. Negative anomalies of Nb and Ti can be seen in all rock types of the Kamtal Intrusion, which is indicative of subduction zones. The comparison of trace element variations with granitoid rocks of different tectonic settings allows observing a similarity between the Kamtal Intrusion and Andean volcanic arc granitoids.
The Kamtal body is related to the VAG tectonic setting and was probably produced as a result of Khoy back-arc basin subduction beneath the Azerbaijan continental crust.