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Calorimetric measurements were made of the heat of immersion in water of cassiterite that was either untreated or treated with 60% HNO3. The heats of immersion of cassiterite and fluorite were also calculated theoretically from the surface Gibbs energy components, and compared with the heat of immersion measured for cassiterite and that taken from the literature for fluorite. The results of the measurements and calculation revealed that the heat of immersion depends on the degree of hydration of the surface of cassiterite and fluorite. It was also found that it is possible to predict the heats of immersion in water of cassiterite and fluorite from the Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base components of the surface Gibbs energy.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Ana Estévez, Raquel Rodríguez, Noelia Díaz, Roser Granero, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez, Marta Baño, Laura Moragas, Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Hibai López-González, Paula Jauregui, Jaione Onaindia, Virginia Martín-Romera, José M. Menchón, and Susana Jiménez-Murcia

Background and aims

Recent technological developments have brought about notable changes in the way people gamble. The widespread use of mobile Internet devices and gambling websites has led to a significant leap in the number of people who recreationally gamble. However, for some, gambling can turn into a psychiatric disorder resembling substance addiction. At present, there is a shortage of studies examining differences between adults with gambling disorder (GD) who exclusively make sports bets online, GD patients that are non-sports Internet gamblers, and offline gamblers. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the differences between these three groups, considering sociodemographic, personality, and clinical characteristics.


The sample consisted of 2,743 treatment-seeking male patients from the Pathological Gambling Unit at a university hospital. All patients met DSM-5 criteria for GD.


We found that gamblers who exclusively engaged in non-sports Internet gambling activities were younger than offline gamblers and online sports gamblers. Non-sports Internet gamblers were also more likely to have greater levels of debt compared with offline gamblers. In terms of personality characteristics, our sample displayed low levels of self-directedness and cooperativeness and high levels of novelty seeking. In addition, online sports gamblers obtained higher scores in persistence than non-sports Internet gamblers and offline gamblers.

Discussion and conclusion

Although differences if terms of gambling severity were not identified between groups, GD patients who exclusively bet online appear to possess distinct personality characteristics and higher debt levels compared with offline gamblers.

Open access