Reflecting onMoravcsik's paper and his assertion that a damaging dominant one-dimensionalism prevails within the science of science, one can draw the following conclusions. Firstly, the one-dimensionalism described byMoravcsik is a misrepresentation of a great deal of useful and valid scientometric research. This work is not so methodologically or theoretically naive asMoravcsik seeks to suggest, nor is it so uniform. Secondly,Moravcsik's assertion that there is little multidimensional work being carried out overlooks the considerable body of such research being published in the sociology of science. Thirdly, the sociology of science is but one sub-field of the science of science, and each such sub-field is characterized by its own sets of objectives and resource constraints. The nature of these objectives and constraints determines the relative suitability of particular methodologies and the optimal mix of methodologies. This in turn influences the relative frequency of adoption of those approaches which can be described as either one- or multidimensional. The result is that contrary to Moravcsik's assertions, a methodological pluralism already exists; a methodological pluralism which should be recognised as a natural consequence of the diversity of research objectives and constraints which characterize the science of science, as well as the wide range of disciplinary backgrounds of those who work within it.As the science of science has itself shown, discussion of cognitive content should not be totally divorced from consideration of social context.
There have recently been completed a number of studies which analyse and interpret trends in multiple authorship for scientific papers. This paper presents data which show that a significant relationship exists between levels of multiple authorship for papers submitted to a leading Astronomy journal, and their frequency of acceptance for publication. It is argued that this finding indicates the need for the exercise of more extensive qualification when drawing inferences about actual social aspects of research activity, from trends in the multiple authorship of published papers.
Authors:D. Anderson, M. Failey, W. Zoller, W. Walters, G. Gordon, and R. Lindstrom
A facility for neutron-capture γ-ray spectroscopy for analytical purposes has been developed and tested at the National Bureau
of Standards reactor. The system consists of an internal beam tube with collimators, an external beam tube and irradiation
station, a Compton-suppressed Ge(Li) γ-ray detection system, and a minicomputer-based data-collection and-analysis system.
Detection limits have been established for many elements and errors arising from neutron self shielding, γ-ray peak overlap,
neutron beam variations, and sample matrix evaluated.
Authors:Mark S. Romano, Sanjeev Gambhir, Joselito M. Razal, Adrian Gestos, Gordon G. Wallace, and Jun Chen
To decrease the consumption of fossil fuels, research has been done on utilizing low grade heat, sourced from industrial waste streams. One promising thermoenergy conversion system is a thermogalvanic cell; it consists of two identical electrodes held at different temperatures that are placed in contact with a redox-based electrolyte [, ]. The temperature dependence of the direction of redox reactions allows power to be extracted from the cell [, ]. This study aims to increase the power conversion efficiency and reduce the cost of thermogalvanic cells by optimizing the electrolyte and utilizing a carbon based electromaterial, reduced graphene oxide, as electrodes. Thermal conductivity measurements of the K3Fe(CN)6/K4Fe(CN)6 solutions used, indicate that the thermal conductivity decreases from 0.591 to 0.547 W/m K as the concentration is increased from 0.1 to 0.4 M. The lower thermal conductivity allowed a larger temperature gradient to be maintained in the cell. Increasing the electrolyte concentration also resulted in higher power densities, brought about by a decrease in the ohmic overpotential of the cell, which allowed higher values of short circuit current to be generated. The concentration of 0.4 M K3Fe(CN)6/K4Fe(CN)6 is optimal for thermal harvesting applications using R-GO electrodes due to the synergistic effect of the reduction in thermal flux across the cell and the enhancement of power output, on the overall power conversion efficiency. The maximum mass power density obtained using R-GO electrodes was 25.51 W/kg (three orders of magnitude higher than platinum) at a temperature difference of 60 °C and a K3Fe(CN)6/K4Fe(CN)6 concentration of 0.4 M.
Authors:William Van Gordon, Edo Shonin, Thomas J. Dunn, Javier Garcia-Campayo, Marcelo M. P. Demarzo, and Mark D. Griffiths
Background and aims
Workaholism is a form of behavioral addiction that can lead to reduced life and job satisfaction, anxiety, depression, burnout, work–family conflict, and impaired productivity. Given the number of people affected, there is a need for more targeted workaholism treatments. Findings from previous case studies successfully utilizing second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) for treating behavioral addiction suggest that SG-MBIs may be suitable for treating workaholism. This study conducted a controlled trial to investigate the effects of an SG-MBI known as meditation awareness training (MAT) on workaholism.
Male and female adults suffering from workaholism (n = 73) were allocated to MAT or a waiting-list control group. Assessments were performed at pre-, post-, and 3-month follow-up phases.
MAT participants demonstrated significant and sustained improvements over control-group participants in workaholism symptomatology, job satisfaction, work engagement, work duration, and psychological distress. Furthermore, compared to the control group, MAT participants demonstrated a significant reduction in hours spent working but without a decline in job performance.
Discussion and conclusions
MAT may be a suitable intervention for treating workaholism. Further controlled intervention studies investigating the effects of SG-MBIs on workaholism are warranted.