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  • Author or Editor: M. H. Hamed x
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The Karnak Temple is a tourist attraction site in Luxor, Egypt. Sacred Lake lies inside the Karnak Temple, it is an important lake from both historical and touristical point of views. About 4,000 years ago the ancient Egyptians used this lake as a saint place. The priests were washing in the lake four to five times a day. The lake area is about 3,200 m2. The lake was shallow before 1985 and the floras of the lake had been monospecific cyanoprokaryote (Microcystis flos-aquae or Spirulina labyrinthiformis). In 1985 Nile water was circulated through the lake by the so-called French project. In 1993, the pumping of Nile water was stopped and the water became stored and not renewed again. The increase in the water level of the lake since 1985 followed by stopping the water circulation in 1993 have a negative impact, making the lake similar to a fishpond. Now, sixteen taxa of cyanobacteria and Chlorophyta were determined in the lake together with dense vegetation of the aquatic plant Potamogeton pectinatus L. during the two expeditions in April and October 1996. The presence of this diversified flora, especially the bad smell resulting from the growth of algae and aquatic plant has adverse effects on tourism. Restoration of the ancient picture of the lake is recommended and some suggestions were emphasised in this study. We would like to call attention for protection of the lake by continuous cleaning. This suggestion will help in restoring the lake to its ancient status.

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Abstract

Heat transfer in gas-solid two-phase flow is investigated numerically and experimentally. The numerical computations are carried out using four-way coupling Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The effects of particle rotation and lift forces are included in the model. The gas-phase turbulence is modeled via low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence models. The SIMPLE algorithm is extended to take the effect of compressibility into account. The experimental study is performed using crushed limestone to simulate the solid phase. The effects of Reynolds numbers, particles size and temperature on the pressure drop and the temperature of the phases are investigated. The model predictions are found to be in a good agreement with available experimental data for high speed gas-solid flow and present experimental data for low speed flow. The present results indicate that heat transfer in gas solid flow can be modeled using ideal gas incompressible flow model at low conveying speed, while for high speed flow, a full compressible model should be used.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
M. Pham
,
M. Betti
,
P. Povinec
,
M. Benmansour
,
R. Bojanowski
,
P. Bouisset
,
E. Calvo
,
G. Ham
,
E. Holm
,
M. Hult
,
C. Ilchmann
,
M. Kloster
,
G. Kanisch
,
M. Köhler
,
J. La Rosa
,
F. Legarda
,
M. Llauradó
,
A. Nourredine
,
J.-S. Oh
,
M. Pellicciari
,
U. Rieth
,
A. Rodriguez y Baena
,
J. Sanchez-Cabeza
,
H. Satake
,
J. Schikowski
,
M. Takeishi
,
H. Thébault
, and
Z. Varga

Abstract  

A new Reference Material (RM) for radionuclides in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Mediterranean Sea (IAEA-437) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Four radionuclides (40K, 234U, 238U, and 239+240Pu) have been certified, and information values on massic activities with 95% confidence intervals are given for nine radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pb(210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 235U, and 241Am). Results for less frequently reported radionuclides (90Sr, 129I, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 240Pu) are also reported. The RM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in mussel samples, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available in 200 g units.

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