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  • Author or Editor: M. Hajós-Novák x
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Mutant soybean germplasm was developed from a Carpathian-Ukrainian local variety, using 100–300 Gy chronic gamma irradiation to obtain lines with improved oil and/or protein content. The mutant germplasm was developed by the pedigree method. Selection for high oil and protein content started in the M3 generation. Plants with 24.1 and 23.6% oil content in the seeds were detected in the M4 generation. There were negative, moderate (r = –0.4) and significant (P<0.1 and P<0.01) correlations between the oil content and the 1000-seed weight in both the M3 and M4 generations. The fatty acid composition in the seeds of plants with high oil content was favourable. It is suggested that selection for oil content in the seeds should be started in the M4 generation. Due to the limited genetic variation for protein content no mutant genotypes with higher protein content than that of the control could be identified.

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Seed protein pattern of control and M 10 mutant soybean ( Glycine max [L.] Merr.) lines in defatted and non-defatted raw flour was studied after 60% 2-propanol extraction, SDS-PAGE separation, colloidal staining and densitometric evaluation to detect a new variant of the protein KTI and/or BBI, furthermore to find new protein(s) of low molecular weight. Electrophoretic separation of defatted and non-defatted control soybean samples showed the same protein patterns. On the densitograms of mutant lines quantitative and qualitative differences could be observed. Defatted raw soy samples reflected more differences in the number of peaks than non-defatted ones. Beside soy trypsin inhibitors, several more soy proteins of low molecular weight are dissolved. KA mutant line 9 has a unique 2-propanol soluble protein pattern, and a new protein band of Rf=0.37 compared to the control line. Sixty percent 2-propanol soluble soybean seed proteins are suitable for cultivar identification and characterization, furthermore to distinguish soybean lines of the same origin.

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A new unstable organ-specific Adh1 mutant was isolated from autotetraploid S 25 Wf9 maize line after germinating kernels under water for two days. Adh1-Fm4x-1 expresses normal and/or reduced levels of ADH1 in anaerobic scutellum. No activity or approximately 33–75% of wild type level of ADH1 in pollen grains was observed. The organ-specific phenotype of the Adh1-Fm4x-1 could be maintained by selfing for ten subsequent generations. After crossing with the wild-type allele the Adh1 mutation transmitted to the next generation both by female and male gametophytes. The appearance of one- and two-banded patterns in anaerobic scutellum and pollen grains of heterozygous F 1 plants showed the lack of F·F homodimers.DNA sequence analyses of the wild type allele, the Adh1-Fm4x-1 mutant allele and four F 1 revertants revealed that the Adh1-Fm4x-1 mutation contains a Dissociation (Ds1) transposable element in the 5′ untranslated leader of the maize Adh1 gene, which regulates organ-specific expression at a quantitative level.

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