Penetration of Cs+ , Cd 2+ and Co2+ions across an animal model of human skin (five-day-old rat skin) was studiedin vitro in vertical diffusion cells. Glucans (fibrilary beta-glucan, carboxymethyl-chitosan-glucan)were used as permeation inhibitors with the aim to reduce the potential toxicologicaleffect of these metals in humans. Of the glucans studied, carboxymethyl-chitosan-glucanwas the more effective inhibitor. The dose-dependency of this effect was demonstrated.
Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis was used for the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in industrial wastewaters (from surface treatment of metals and glasses) after precipitation of determined elements by 8-hydroxyquinoline.
Radiometric X-ray fluorescence analysis was used for the determination of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in wastewater and sludges from three wastewater treatment plants in Bratislava (SR). Metals were determined in wastewaters after preconcentration by 8-hydroxyquinoline and in sludges by drying and pressing to pellets.238Pu and109Cd was used for excitation of fluorescence radiation.
Fe and Zn were determined in various parts of maize (Zea mays) in dependence on quantity of organic substrate EKOFERT as organic fertilizer in soil, using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis. The increase of quantity of organic substrate EKOFERT in soil causes a decrease of heavy metal concentrations in certain parts of the plant.
Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence method was used in the determination of Cr, Ni and other heavy metals content in wastewater of an engineering plant taken both before and after chemical treatment. Toxic effects of the wastewaters usingAllium cepa root tip cells were tested.
Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence method with a Si/Li semiconductor detector and238Pu exciting source was used in the determination of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn content in industrial wastewaters. Simultaneously, the effects of the wastewaters on activated sludge biocenose were evaluated.
Radioactive skin contamination with radionuclides in ionic forms after the permeation across skin models was studied in vitro. Using animal skin models of 5-day-old rat and 9-day-old rat, either intact or stripped, it was found that besides the transepidermal also the transfolicular flux can be important. Stratum corneum was found to be the principal permeation barrier in all cases. The study of penetration — time profiles revealed that permeated amounts were proportional to time in the case of 137Cs+ and 60Co2+, but they showed a local maximum in the case of 147Pm3+.
Co2+ ion penetration at different concentrations across animal models of human skin-five days old rat skin (without hairs) and
nine days old rat skin (with hairs)—was studied in vitro in vertical diffusion cells. The results showed that the permeated
amounts of Co2+ ions are proportional to its concentration in donor solutions, whereby permeated fractions are higher at lower concentrations.
Results confirmed that the most important barrier against the penetration of ions is horny layer of the skin.
Authors:J. Tölgyessy, M. Harangozó, and P. Dillinger
Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence method with Si/Li semiconductor detector and238Pu exciting source was used for the determination of Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb in plant samples (Taraxacum officinale) from various localities near the highway D-61 Bratislava-Trnava (SR).