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The determination of the titanium content of bauxite samples of various origin was studied by thermal neutron activation and X-ray analysis. A252Cf-fission neutron source and a Ge(Li) detector as well as a3H exciting source and a Si(Li) detector were used in the investigations. Within equal measuring times and with a sample weight of 8 g the sensitivity of the activation method is 0.35 w% Ti with an absolute statistical error less than 10%, while that of the X-ray method is 0.06 w% Ti and the absolute statistical error does not exceed 5%.

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The nutritive value of dog foods declared by the manufacturer as nutritionally complete and balanced can be best assessed by feeding trials with dogs. A protocol of a feeding trial has been developed and tested with working dogs fed two different commercial complete and balanced diets for 8 weeks. The parameters used for evaluating the effect of diets were general health status, body and hair coat condition, change of body weight, haematological parameters (white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume), and biochemical parameters in blood serum (alanine aminotransferase, urea, albumin). The trial protocol proved to be appropriate to monitor the dogs' nutritional status and to reveal differences between diets. This method of evaluation is recommended for use in supporting the nutritional claims (labelling) of dog foods.

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Six wheat varieties representing different genotypes were tested under exposed and protected conditions in a three year herbicide provocation field trial at Nagygombos, Hungary. Three types of herbicide treatments (fluroxipir, bromoxynil and dicamba ai.) were applied in comparison with untreated and mechanical treated controls. Weed populations were sorted into two major groups according to the level of their occurrence. The result of experimental treatments were evaluated and  weed tolerance of varieties was determined. The magnitude of weed populations has shown significant differences. All weed control treatments, including chemical and mechanical applications, had an influence on weed development. Herbicide treatments had about fifty per cent, while mechanical applications had a nearly hundred per cent effect concerning weed reduction. The latter can be considered as a level of total weed extinction. High weed canopies were observed in the case of untreated controls only. Wheat cultivars have shown a variety specific yield response. The results obtained suggest varietal differences concerning weed tolerance. The extent of yield losses between wheat cultivars ranged from 4 to 18 per cent of grain yield. In the trial Martonvásári 19 and Martonvásári 21 wheat varieties were proven to have the best weed tolerance abilities. 

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: E. Gyurkovics, P. Arányi, Zs. Turóczi, D. Garbaisz, M. Varga, V. Hegedüs, G. Lotz, P. Kupcsulik, and A. Szijártó



External aortic compression due to acute gastric dilation is a rare etiology of the lower limb ischemia. This phenomenon leads the author to design experimental study for reperfusion syndrome. The lower limb ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury consists of local and systemic components called the reperfusion syndrome. It can progrediate into a multi-organ failure which defines postoperative survival. A postconditioning is a surgical technique, which has a potential to reduce IR injury, therefore to prohibit the development of reperfusion syndrome.


XXXto examine on an experimental model, whether postonditioning is a practicable technique in infarenal aortic surgeries.

Materials and Methods

Male Wistar rats underwent 180 minutes of infrarenal aortic occlusion with 4, 24 and 72 hours of reperfusion. Postconditioning (10 sec. reocclusion / 10 sec. perfusion in 6 cycles) was applied in one group of each reperfusion time. Blood, urine, and histological (muscle, lung, kidney and liver) samples were collected at the postischemic 4th, 24th, and 72th hour.


The early inflammatory response (TNFa, free radicals) and late local inflammation were reduced by posctonditioning significantly. Postconditioning was able to reduce the remote organ injury of lungs and kidneys, the morphological and laboratorial results showed significant difference between the postconditioning and the control group in these two organs. The method's positive effect on remote organ injury remained long-term.


Postconditioning seems to be an applicable process to reduce both local inflammatory and systemic complications of IR injury following vascular surgeries.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Mónika Homa, Kinga Hegedűs, Ádám Fülöp, Vanessza Wolfárt, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M. Khaled, Naiyf S. Alharbi, Csaba Vágvölgyi, and László Galgóczy

Despite the current therapeutic options, filamentous fungal infections are associated with high mortality rate especially in immunocompromised patients. In order to find a new potential therapeutic approach, the in vitro inhibitory effect of two antiarrhythmic agents, diltiazem and verapamil hydrochloride were tested against different clinical isolates of ascomycetous and mucoralean filamentous fungi. The in vitro combinations of these non-antifungal drugs with azole and polyene antifungal agents were also examined. Susceptibility tests were carried out using the broth microdilution method according to the instructions of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M38-A2. Checkerboard microdilution assay was used to assess the interactions between antifungal and non-antifungal drugs. Compared to antifungal agents, diltiazem and verapamil hydrochloride exerted a relatively low antifungal activity with high minimal inhibitory concentration values (853–2731 μg/ml). Although in combination they could increase the antifungal activity of amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole. Indifferent and synergistic interactions were registered in 33 and 17 cases, respectively. Antagonistic interactions were not revealed between the investigated compounds. However, the observed high MICs suggest that these agents could not be considered as alternative systemic antifungal agents.

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