Different combination of raw materials and nucleating agents were incorporated in the batch of nepheline-pyroxene glass to
demonstrate their effect on the crystallization process. The effect of TiO2, Cr2O3 and LiF with respect to crystallization of base glass was studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA).These materials
improved the crystallization of glass between 50 to 150C of heat treatment. When LiF+TiO2 and TiO2+Cr2O3 were put together in the glass batches, the rate of crystallization of glass was increased in the same manner. The presence
of TiO2+LiF+Cr2O3 improved the crystallization of the glass by decreasing the heat temperature by about 60C. CaO/MgO and CaO/Na2O ratios played an important role in the rate of crystal growth. The increase in the CaO/MgO ratio lowers the crystallization
temperature by values ranging between 37 and 46C.
Radiolabeled somatostatin analogues, including octreotate have been used for targeted radiotherapy of neuroendocrine tumors
such as lymphoma, breast cancer, small-cell lung cancer and melanoma. In this paper, studies on the optimization of the production
of 177Lu, 166Ho and 153Sm radionuclides in Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor (PARR-I) and the investigations on the labeling of DOTA-Tyr-3 Octreotate
with 131I, 177Lu, 166Ho and 153Sm have been reported. The labeled DOTA-Tyr3-Octreotate complexes were found to be stable in acetate/ascorbate buffer and
saline at room temperature (18–22°C). The biodistribution studies of 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr-3 Octreotate in rat model indicated that the critical organ for this complex was the pancreas and the excretion
route was through kidney.
The adsorption of mercury on zirconium oxide from aqueous solution has been studied in relation to concentration of adsorbent and adsorbate. The influence of contact time, buffer composition, pH, and foreign ions was also investigated. Thiosulfate, iodide, thiocyanate, EDTA, cyanide and Li(I) drastically reduced adsorption. Adsorption of other metal ions under the same conditions was also investigated. Based on these data, separation of mercury from antimony and neodymium can be achieved.
Estimation of zinc and its bioavailability in wheat grains is a prerequisite for an effective biofortification program. The selected 65 bread wheat varieties are representative of indigenous and foreign genetic pools being used for genotype development at the Wheat Research Institute, Faisalabad (Pakistan). The main objectives of the study were: (i) to determine the variation in phytate and zinc concentrations in whole grains; (ii) to estimate the bioavailable zinc in wheat grains by using trivariate model of zinc absorption and phytate to zinc molar ratios ([phytate]:[zinc]); and (iii) to examine the interrelationship of bioavailable zinc with year of variety release. Average zinc in grains of wheat varieties was 29 μg g−1 and ranged from 24 to 36 μg g−1. Phytate in grains ranged from 7.1 to 11.1 mg g−1 resulting in a variation in [phytate]:[zinc] of 24 to 41. The estimated bioavailable zinc in grains ranged from 1.52 to 2.15 mg zinc for 300 g of wheat flour, indicating that only 21 ± 3% of grain zinc was actually bioavailable. Year of variety release in Punjab (Pakistan) had significant negative correlations with total (r = −0.70, n = 46, P < 0.001) and estimated bioavailable (r = −0.65, n = 46, P < 0.001) zinc in wheat grains. This demands for an effective breeding program with optimized agronomic approaches to restore and improve the bioavailable zinc in grains of cultivated bread wheat varieties for Pakistan.
The use of locally available mineral clay for the removal of radionuclides from the low and intermediate level liquid waste has been studied. Adsorption behavior of this naturally available inorganic adsorbent is reported. The factors such as contact time, nature of the waste, pH and adsorption capacity have been considered. These optional physico-chemical conditions suggest an effective use of this locally available adsorbent for the decontamination of the liquid radioactive waste at Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad.
Authors:S. Chughtai, J. Fateh, M. Munawwar, and M. Hussain
A number of improved pipeline varieties of sorghum including PARC SS-1, PARC SS-2 and PARC Ss-15 were planted in various agro-ecological zones of Pakistan for 2 years (2004 and 2005). The participatory Mother-Baby Trial methodology was used for the first time in Pakistan for varietal evaluation and selection. Six varieties of sorghum were evaluated along with the local checks. In general, the pipeline varieties developed at the National Agricultural Research Centre had a yield advantage of 15 to 20% over the local checks and other improved varieties included in the trial. The farmers were involved in the varietal selection process. These varieties were selected by the farmers on the basis of maturity, higher yield, resistance to leaf blight and red rot diseases, drought tolerance, and the dual (grain cum fodder) nature of the varieties. Based on the evaluation and selection, these varieties are being released for general cultivation in various ecologies. The results from participatory trials on various agronomic aspects are presented and discussed in this paper.
Authors:A. Sattar, M.A. Cheema, T. Abbas, A. Sher, M. Ijaz, M.A. Wahid, and M. Hussain
Late planting of wheat in rice-wheat cropping system is perhaps one of the major factors responsible for low crop yield. The main cause of reduction in yield is due to supra-optimal conditions during the reproductive growth. High temperature during reproductive phase induces changes in water relations, decreases photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and antioxidative defence system. Silicon (Si), being a beneficial nutrient not only provides significant benefits to plants growth and development but may also mitigate the adversities of high temperature. A field study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area of University of Agriculture; Faisalabad, Pakistan to assess the performance of late sown wheat with the soil applied Si. Experiment was comprised of three sowing dates; 10th Nov (normal), 10th Dec (late), 10th Jan (very late) with two wheat varieties (Sehar-2006 and Faisalabad-2008), and an optimized dose of Si (100 mg per kg soil), applied at different growth stages (control, crown root, booting and heading). Results indicated that 100 mg Si per kg soil at heading stage offset the negative impact of high temperature and induced heat tolerance in late sown wheat. Silicon application improved 34% relative water contents (RWC), 30% water potential, 26% osmotic potential, 23% turgor potential and 21% photosynthetic rate, and 32% transpiration rate and 20% stomatal conductance in wheat flag leaf than control treatment. Further it was observed that Si application preventing the oxidative membrane damage due to enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. 35% superoxide dismutase (SOD) and 38% catalase (CAT). In conclusion results of this field study demonstrated that soil applied Si (100 mg per kg soil) at heading stage enhanced all physiological attributes of wheat flag leaf. Which in turn ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in late sown wheat. Study depicted that Si can be used as a potential nutrient in order to mitigate the losses induced by high temperature stress.
Authors:M. Siddique, M. Anwar-ul-Islam, N. Butt, N. Hussain, S. Rehman, and M. Arshed
Room temperature corrosion studies have been made on the rust of commercially available mild steel in a simulated acid rain
environment using the method of transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The main corrosion products identified are α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH,
and a product with unfamiliar parameters which seems to be amorphous in nature (being very large linewidth −2.5 mm/s) and
may be considered as an intermediate phase. A small amount of γ-Fe2O3 (6–8%) is also observed.