Authors:M. I. E. Arabi, E. Al-Shehadah, and M. Jawhar
Cochliobolus sativus, the causal agent of common root rot (CRR), is a devastating fungal pathogen of barley that can cause significant yield losses worldwide. The development of resistant cultivars has proven difficult, therefore, in this work, CRR-resistant barley germplasm was developed by crossing three resistant-by-susceptible cultivars currently used in Europe and West Asia. Following greenhouse evaluations of 150 doubled haploid lines derived from these crosses, 40 lines were evaluated under artificial infection conditions using incidence and severity parameters during two consecutive seasons. Data showed significant differences among barley lines with a continuum of resistance levels ranging from highly susceptible to resistant which were consistent in both seasons. However, five promising lines had slightly lower CRR disease than the others. Additionally, significant differences (P <0.05) in mean incidence and severity values were found among lines, with values being consistently higher in the susceptible ones. However, CRR severity increased linearly as incidence increased in both seasons. All together, the present study suggests that, the newly identified resistance lines can serve as potential donors for ongoing CRR resistance breeding program to generate high-yielding commercial barley cultivars, and that the positive correlation between CRR parameters I and S may be beneficial for many types of studies on this disease.
Authors:M.I.E. Arabi, E. Al-shehadah, and M. Jawhar
Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) is a common foliar disease of barley worldwide. The creation of new cultivars with durable resistance to Bgh is highly desirable. This work was undertaken to examine the resistance to Bgh in 10 genetically diverse barley parents, and to evaluate their general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects toward determining the genetic basis of disease resistance. Two experiments, in a growth chamber on seedling and in the field on adult plant stages, were conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The parents expressing differences in their reactions to Bgh were crossed in a half-diallel mating design to generate 45 full-sib families. Genetic component analysis showed significant effects for both GCA and SCA under both experiments suggesting that additive as well as non-additive genetic mechanisms were involved in the expression of resistance in these parents. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability was 0.63 and broad-sense heritability was 98% indicating that selection for the disease resistance should be effective in these crosses. Resistant parents ‘Banteng, PK 30-136 and ‘Igri’ had significantly negative GCA effects, suggesting their prime suitability for use in barley breeding programs to improve resistance to Bgh.
Authors:A. Adam, M. I. E. Arabi, I. Edris, and E. Al-Shehadah
The effect of four rhizobacterial strains on the severity of spot blotch disease
caused by cochliobolus sativus was evaluated for two growing
seasons under rainfed conditions. Three barley genotypes were used as host
plant. All strains reduced C. sativus severity, with effect
more pronounced when Pseudomonas putida BTP1 and
Bacillus subtilis Bs2508 were used. The disease reduction
was up to 56% in Arabi Abiad / P. putida BTP1. The grain yield
was not obviously affected by the presence of the rhizobacteria, except some
signifitive increase in season 2. Raising the resistance by soaking seed with
rhizobacterial strains might be of ultimate value in agriculture.
Authors:A. Al-Daoude, E. Al-Shehadah, A. Shoaib, M. Jawhar, and M.I.E. Arabi
Spot blotch (SB) caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus is a destructive disease of barley worldwide. To better understand the mechanisms of resistance to this disease, the involvements of salicylic acid (SA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ion fluxes during the interaction between resistant and susceptible barley seedlings and C. sativus were investigated. Early SA accumulation in leaf tissues was accompanied with an increase in H2O2 concentration in both compatible and incompatible interactions. The resistant cultivar constitutively contained higher levels of H2O2 and SA, as well as during the 72 h as compared with the un-infected control (0 h). However, levels increased rapidly upon infection in both cultivars. Moreover, a markedly greater increase in ion fluxes from the compatible material compared with the incompatible one was observed. Results suggest that SA and H2O2 accumulation are important during both compatible and incompatible barley- C. sativus interactions.
Authors:M. I. E. Arabi, M. Jawhar, and E. Al-Shehadah
Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) is a major fungal disease of barley causing economical yield losses worldwide. Breeding for resistance to this disease is crucial due to the rapid change in pathotype patterns of B. graminis in fields. In the present work, powdery mildew-resistant barley germplasm was developed by crossing four cultivars currently used in Europe and West Asia. Out of 265 doubled haploid lines derived from these crosses, 40 lines were evaluated at seedling and adult stages. Data showed significant differences among barley lines with a continuum of resistance levels ranging from highly susceptible to tolerant which were consistent during the two growth stages. Two promising lines were more tolerant to powdery disease than the others. Across lines, there was a high correlation between field and greenhouse reaction (r=0.80, P<0.01), indicating the utility of greenhouse evaluations for screening barley for powdery mildew. This study suggests that, the newly identified resistance lines can serve as potential donors for ongoing powdery mildew resistance breeding program, and both types of seedling and adult plant resistance identified here can offer promising genetic stocks for accumulating both resistances to acquire durable resistance and long lasting control against B. graminis in Mediterranean and similar environments.
Authors:A. Shoaib, A. Aldaoude, M.I.E. Arabi, E. Al-Shehadah, and M. Jawhar
Scald (Rhynchosporium secalis; Rs) and spot blotch (Cochliobolus sativus; Cs) are important diseases of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) worldwide. Similar mechanisms and gene transcripts are assumed to be involved in the barley defense response since both these pathogens are necrotrophic fungi. In the current study, the transcriptome in leaves of the same barley genotype WI2291 inoculated with Rs and Cs was compared at different times postinoculation. Comparison of data for barley Rs- and Cs- inoculated plants with mockinoculated plants revealed gene expression changes that included basal defense transcripts and transcripts specific to the establishment of a necrotrophic interaction with associated fungi. During barley–pathogen interaction pathway, WI2291 activated a higher number of genes and pathways in response to Rs infection than in response to Cs invasion. However, families of genes encoding pectin-degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism enzymes, transporters and peptidases are expanded to cover Rs and Cs at an early stage following inoculation. Our results demonstrate differences in the pathways and activated genes of barely cv. WI291challenged by Rs and Cs, and that expression patterns of the same defenseassociated genes were altered in adaptation to different pathogens. Our work provides new insights into the underlying mechanisms related to regulation of different pathways in response to fungal infection.
Authors:A. Al-Daoude, E. Al-Shehadah, A. Shoaib, M. Jawhar, and M.I.E. Arabi
The biotrophic Blumeria graminis (Bg) and the necrotrophic Cochliobolus sativus; (Cs) are economically important fungal pathogens of barley globally. To better understand barley mechanisms to resist these pathogens, changes in salicylic acid (SA) and its responsive genes particularly the pathogenesis related PR1, PR2, PR3 and PR5 were evaluated using qRT-PCR across four time points post infection. Data showed that SA contents significantly increased (P = 0.001) in infected plants of both resistant and susceptible genotypes 24 h post inoculation in comparison with non-infected controls. In addition, time-course tests revealed a notable contradiction in the defense-related genes expression patterns between barley and Bg and Cs interactions, showing that expression patterns of the same defense-associated genes were altered in adaptation to different pathogens. PR1 and PR2 genes were highlyactivated inresistant plants infected with the necrotrophic pathogen Cs rather than of the biotrophic one. The uniformity in barley defense response mechanisms could be in convention with the well-accepted notion that these responses are high intense in the resistant genotype. Our work provides useful information on the expected role of SA pathways in barley towards biotrophic and necroptrophic pathogens with different lifestyles.
Authors:A. Al-Daoude, H. Alek, M. Jawhar, E. Al-Shehadah, A. Shoiab, and M. I. E. Arabi
The seed-borne (Pyrenophora graminea; Pg) and foliar
(Blumeria graminis; Bg) are two economically important
fungal pathogens of barley worldwide. Barley plant resistance genes, as the
pathogenesis related proteins play an important role in defense mechanisms. This
study aimed to monitor the expression of PR2 and
PAL pathogenesis related genes during
compatible/incompatible barley interaction with Pg and
Bg at different time points of disease development using
the Quantitative Real-time PCR technique (qRT-PCR).
Comparison of data showed that PR2 and PAL were
significantly over expressed in infected resistant and susceptible plants as
against their lower expression in controls,. Upregulation of these
defense-related genes during Pg and Bg
infections was companied with a slow development of disease symptoms at the time
course in the resistant genotype. qRT-PCR analysis revealed higher gene
expression in resistant barley plants inoculated with Pg as
compared with Bg, with a maximum expression for
PR2 (13.8 and 5.06-fold) and PAL (14.8 and
4.51-fold) respectively, at the latest stage of each disease development. It was
also noteworthy that PR2 and PAL genes, had
higher constitutive expression and faster induction for the both pathogens in
the resistant genotype as compared with the susceptible one.
Obtained results suggest that both genes, PR2 and
PAL, positively regulate Pg- and
Bg-resistance in barley plants during disease progress.
These expression patterns can provide useful insights to better understanding of
the barley–fungus interactions with different fungal lifestyles.
Antagonistic microorganisms have been used as biological control agents to reduce the use of chemical fungicides in the control of crop diseases. The present work was conducted to determine the antagonistic potential of Bacillus sp. isolates against the soil-borne fungus Cochliobolus sativus, the causal agent of barley common root (CRR) disease. Out of 525 isolates, 40 were showed in vitro antagonistic activity against the virulent C. sativus isolate CRR16. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing Bacillus sp. isolates are identified as B. atrophaeus, B. subtilis, Paenibacillus polymyxa, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. simplex and B. tequilensis. Results showed that Bacillus sp. had significant (P<0.05) antagonistic activities against the C. sativus where the percentage of radial growth inhibition of the fungi colonies ranged from 59 to 92%, compared to the untreated control. The B. subtilis isolate SY41B had the highest inhibition effect on the vegetative growth zones as compared with the other species isolates. In view of these, our results indicate that the antagonistic effect of the Bacillus sp. isolates may be important contributors as a biocontrol approach that could be employed as a part of integrated CRR management system.
Authors:M. Jawhar, A. Shoaib, M.I.E. Arabi, and A. Aldaoude
Spot blotch, caused by Cochliobolus sativus, is an important barley disease which causes extensive grain yield losses worldwide. In order to investigate the molecular responses to the C. sativus infection, leaf transcriptome and proteome before and after fungus inoculation in a resistant barley genotype, were compared using cDNA-AFLP and 2-D PAGE techniques. A notable number of transcripts and proteins exhibiting significant differential accumulations were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. Functional annotation of the transcripts and proteins revealed a wide range of pathways including cell wall fortification, metabolism, signal transduction and defence. Spearman correlations of the relative abundances for those genes represented by both an mRNA and a protein showed a weak (rs = 0.4; P < 0.001) relationship, indicating that post-transcriptional processes play a critical role in regulating the protein level during infection. Taken together, our study suggested that a joint analysis of the transcriptomic and proteomic of barley data can provide useful insights that may not be deciphered from individual analysis of mRNA or protein expressions.