Charged particle activation analysis has proved to be useful for the determination of surface oxygen under any atmospheric conditions. The16O(3He, p)18F reaction was used for activation. The sample in a form of two plates was contacted intimately with each other and bombarded with3He particles of such an energy as to give the maximum cross section at the inside surfaces of the plates. The18F thus formed in the forward plate was then measured. Oxygen in the gap between the two plates can be shown to cause no noticeable interference. This method was applied to silicon, aluminium and lead in four different ambient pressures.
Authors:S. Ambe, Y. Ohkubo, M. Iwamoto, and Y. Kobayashi
It was found that not only111mCd but also105Ag and106mAg sublimate at 1050 °C under a reduced pressure from Pd foils irradiated with -particles. The sublimation method has enabled rapid separation of the isotopes and repeated use of valuable Pd foils. Adsorption onte -Fe2O3 and coprecipitation with ferric hydroxide were studied by using radioactive tracers.
Authors:T. Nozaki, M. Iwamoto, K. Usami, K. Mukai, and A. Hiraiwa
Oxygen in silicon nitride films on silicon wafers was analyzed by activation with the16O(3He, p)18F reaction. By3He bombardment of samples propertly arranged under consideration of the18F recoil effect, total oxygen was reliably determined and its predominant part was estimated to be located whether on film
surface, in film interior, or on film-substrate interface. Sample films with 0.1 to 2 μm thicknesses were found to contain
0.2 to 2 μg/cm2 of oxygen in locations varying with preparation conditions. This method has been compared with ESCA and other methods for
Authors:S. Ambe, M. Iwamoto, H. Maeda, and F. Ambe
pH dependence of the adsorption of Na, Sc, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, and Pd on -Fe2O3 from a 0.1 mol dm–3 NaCl solution was studied by using a multitracer technique. Desorption of the metal ions from the -Fe2O3 with the adsorbed metal ions at pH 11 was also studied by lowering the pH of the suspensions. The desorption curve of each element was in good agreement with the adsorption curve except for Ru and Rh under conditions studied. Adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption of most metal ions increases with shaking time before an adsorption equilibrium is attained. An increase in the adsorption was also observed with an elevation in temperature for the elements, suggesting that the adsorption is involved in chemisorption.
Authors:S. Ambe, Y. Ohkubo, Y. Kobayashi, M. Iwamoto, H. Maeda, and M. Yanokura
Transport and distribution of metal ions in rice and soybean plants were studied using multitracers produced by irradiating an Au target by 135 MeV/nucleon12C,14N, or16O ions accelerated by RIKEN Ring Cyclotron. The multitracer consisted of radioisotopes of the following elements: Be, Na, Sc, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ag, Te, Ba, Ce, Pm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ir, and Pt. Rice and soybean plants were grown in a nutrient solution and also on soil containing a multitracer. -ray spectroscopy of different parts of the plants showed that all the elements were more or less taken up by roots, while appreciable transport to leaves and seeds was observed only for Mn, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, and Ba.
Authors:Y. Takahashi, Y. Minai, T. Ozaki, S. Ambe, M. Iwamoto, H. Maeda, F. Ambe, and T. Tominaga
The multitracer technique was applied to elucidate of influence of humate formation on adsorption behavior of ultratrace elements. Dissolved fractions of Co, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Re and Pt in contact with kaolinite or silica gel were determined simultaneously either in the presence or absence of humic acid, which was partly adsorbed on the solid. Percentage of dissolved fraction of rare earth elements was identical to that of humic acid, indicating high stability of the rare earth-humate complex. Hydrolysis was the most important factor controlling the behavior of Zr and Hf. Both hydrolysis and humate complexation influenced the adsorption of Co, Sr, Ba and Pt, whereas neither affected the distribution of As, Rb and Re.
Authors:T. Shinonaga, S. Ambe, S. Enomoto, H. Maeda, M. Iwamoto, T. Watanabe, and I. Yamaguchi
The direct absorption of atmospheric elements via soybean leaves has been studied using a radioactive multitra r technique. Soybean was cultivated until it bore seeds in a box under no-rain conditions and with introduction of multitracer-adsorbed cellulose powders. The radioactive nuclides of 40 elements were produced from Au target irradiated with14N, and the nuclides with relatively long half-life of the elements Sc, Mn, Co, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Eu, Gd, Yb, Re, and Ir were dominantly observed in each part of soybean plant.
Authors:S. Ambe, S. Chen, Y. Ohkubo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Maeda, M. Iwamoto, M. Yanokura, N. Takematsu, and F. Ambe
We established Multitracer, a new versatile radiotracer technique, for simultaneous tracing of a number of elements in various chemical, environmental, and biological systems. Metal foil targets (typically Au, Ag, Ge, Cu and Fe) are irradiated with C, N, or O ions accelerated up to 135 MeV/nucleon by RIKEN Ring Cyclotron. Radiochemical procedures have been developed to remove the target material leaving the nuclides as Multitracer solutions containing various radionuclides of Be, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Te, I, Ba, Ce, Pm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Hg. Multitracers enable efficient tracing of a number of elements, and comparison of their behavior under strictly identical experimental conditions. Such features will be demonstrated by means of an example of application to a model experiment for the study of removal mechanism of various elements from the ocean.