Long-term trials have a twofold role in life sciences, acting as both live laboratories and public collections. Long-term trials are not simply scientific curios or the honoured relics of a museum, but highly valuable live ecological models that can never be replaced or restarted if once terminated or suspended. These trials provide valuable and dynamic databases for solving scientific problems. The present paper is intended to give a brief summary of the crop production aspects of long-term trials.
Most Hungarian ecosystems are agro-ecosystems dominated by crops. In these agroecosystems small game has a secondary, but nevertheless very important role. On the one hand, the wild fauna figures are an indicator of the sustainability of a system. On the other hand, game management and hunting are traditional activities. Hunting can be regarded as a special kind of agriculture and small game management takes place on agricultural land, so more should be known about the connection between ecosystem components, such as climatic factors, crops and small game populations, for example that of hare. Data on the land use in Hungary were collected between 1960 and 2006. The area and yield of 30 field crops and various meteorological parameters were examined, as well as hare populations. The results suggest that in general the magnitude of crop areas had a stronger effect than the yield, while weather parameters had the weakest impact on the hare population.
Water supply of crop plants is the most essential physiological condition influencing quality and quantity performance of grain yield. In a 12-year experimental series of winter wheat agronomic trials run at the Nagygombos experimental site (Hungary) the effect of water availability has been studied. The location represents the typical average lowland conditions of the country, the annual precipitation of the experimental site belonging to the 550–600 mm belt of the Northern edges of the Great Hungarian Plain, while the average depth of groundwater varies between 2 to 3 metres. Crop years with various precipitation patterns have had different impacts on crop yield quality and quantity. Yield figures were in positive correlation with annual precipitation in general. Water availability had diverse influence on quality manifestation. Good water supply has often resulted in poorer grain quality, especially wet gluten and Hagberg values have been affected by that. Drought reduced the amount of yield in general, but contributed to a better quality manifestation in some of the crop years.
The effects of nitrogen (N) applications on Hungarian, French and Serbian winter wheat cultivars were studied in field trials, which were conducted from 1996 to 2003 in a central Hungarian region, Hatvan-Nagygombos. Nitrogen fertilizer rates of 0, 40, 80, 120, 40 + 40 and 80 + 40 were applied at tillering and after anthesis fazes (Feekes 3 and Feekes 10.5.). The nitrogen used was 36 % ammonium-nitrate in. Split-split plot design with four replications was used. In the experiment we analysed the changes of quantity and baking quality of yield. Amount of rainfall during the vegetation period had a significant effect on wheat yield. Differences in rainfall during the vegetation period — especially in April and May — had a significant effect, too. It turned out that in drought periods nitrogen top-dressing has a great importance. In the dry 2001–2003 years even the 40 kg/ha dose resulted in extra yield. 80 and 120 kg/ha fertilizer rates was even more effective. The increasing dose of nitrogen top-dressing and its division resulted in this trial in an outstanding quality improving effect in spite of the unfavourable ecological circumstances. Especially great improvement was observed in the case of foreign varieties. Nitrogen top-dressing stabilized the falling number values.
The effects of nitrogen (N) applications on Hungarian, French and Serbian winter wheat cultivars were studied in field trials conducted from 1996 to 2003 in a central Hungarian region, Hatvan-Nagygombos. Fertilizer rates of 0, 40, 80, 120, 40+40 and 80+40 kg ha-1 active ingredient were applied at tillering and after anthesis (Feekes 3 and Feekes 10.5). The N-fertilizer applied was ammonium-nitrate in 34% cc. Split-split plot design with four replications was used. In the experiment the changes of quantity and baking quality of the yield were analysed. Differences in rainfall during the vegetation period - especially in April and May - had a strong effect on wheat yield. In drought periods N top-dressing had a great importance. In the dry 2001-2003 years, the 80 and 120 kg ha-1 fertilizer doses were the most effective. The increasing dose of N top-dressing and its division resulted in this trial in an outstanding quality improvement in spite of the unfavourable ecological circumstances. Especially, great improvement was seen in case of foreign varieties that were of lower quality compared to the Hungarian ones. The top-dressing stabilized the falling number values in the 250-350 top range.