In our study we have proven that Bass model depicting the market spread of different products is suitable also for the study and forecast of mineral water consumption. Years in the near future can be predicted trustworthily. Nevertheless, calculation of the optimal parameters is expedient to be executed after every year of consumption data. Our data are belonging from the years of exponent consumption growth (1979–2007), that is to say, from the time before saturation of market, thus one can apply both Bass model and exponent model. We made forecasts for the current forthcoming years by the Bass model.
The aim of the present study was to develop a treatment supporting the membrane of ram spermatozoa. Semen of different ejaculates collected from breeding rams was mixed andsamples of 109 sperm cells per ml and Tris-egg yolk extender were completed with the following antioxidants: a-tocopherol acetate (E), glutathione peroxidase (GP), Aromex® (AR), resveratrol (R), resveratrol + vitamin E (RE), resveratrol + Aromex® (RAR), resveratrol + GP (RGP). Peroxidation was evaluated by the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA) during incubation for 30, 60 and 120 min at 37°C as well as during a 24-h incubation at 5°C. The success of preservation was checked in a 9-day-long period by observing the acrosomal defects and the motility of spermatozoa. Concentration of MDA was 4.06 nmol/109 spermatozoa in samples treated with 15 µg R while the control sample contained 69.79 nmol MDA per 109 spermatozoa after 24-h incubation. Following 30-, 60- and 120-min storage the concentration of MDA in control and R-treated samples was 25.89, 36.91, 49.57 and 3.69, 3.74, 3.74 nmol/109 spermatozoa, respectively. Moreover, a significantly higher proportion of motile sperm cells was observed in the treated than in the control samples. The frequency of acrosomal defects was lower in the treated groups than in the control. These results indicate that RAR treatment can improve the effects of ram semen preservation.
Our study involved assessing new Hungarian multi-resistant apple cultivars (‘Artemisz’, ‘Hesztia’, ‘Rosmerta’, and ‘Cordelia’) and two commercial cultivars (‘Watson Jonathan’ and ‘Prima’). The samples were evaluated by a trained assessor panel applying computer supported profile analysis with 20 descriptive sensory parameters (using ProfiSens sensory assessment software). Beside the profiles of each cultivar we also showed the significant differences between the cultivars (LSD95%, LSD99%). The nutritional values were analysed using the MANOVA statistical method, the effects of significant factors on measured values were evaluated by using Tukey (P=0.05) post-hoc test, and we determined the homogeneous and heterogeneous groups based on that. Our study showed that PCA bi-plots containing sensory and instrumental value loadings together with the scores of apple cultivars make the complex relationships of each cultivar available for comparison. The results clearly showed that the intensity of the sour taste is inversely proportional to the carbohydrate-acid ratio determined by measurements. The flesh firmness and pectin content values obtained by instrumental measurements were found to be strongly correlated sensory parameters on crispness, texture, and ripeness. PCA plots proved to be very useful in demonstrating the parallelisms between instrumental-instrumental (TPC/FRAP) and sensory-sensory (shade/colour) parameter pairs, too. Our aggregated results show that the new Hungarian resistant apple cultivars have almost as good as or even better nutritional values than ‘Prima’ and ‘Jonathan’ (the latter dominated the Hungarian apple production for several decades). The new multi-resistant cultivars renew the range of apple cultivars available on the market, and they introduce new flavours to consumers.
The present study investigated how sighted and blind sensory assessors evaluated the quality of various apple varieties: Regal Prince (Gala Must), Jonagold Schneica (Jonica), Watson Jonathan, Golden Reinders and Generos. A total of 80 sighted and 12 blind people participated in the study, in three groups (sighted people without blindfolds, sighted people with blindfolds, blind people). The preference of sensory attributes (size, shape, colour, texture, taste and odour) was evaluated on a six-category scale. The data were analysed using single-factor (ANOVA, LSD95%, 99%) and multi-factor (Cluster analysis, ANOVA, LSD95%, 99%) evaluation. The results showed that blind and sighted assessors made similar judgements on external attributes perceptible by touch (size, shape), but differed in their evaluation of certain quality factors (flavour, taste), resulting in opponent patterns of preference on some apple varieties (Generos, Jonagold Schneica). A further conclusion of the experiment is that there was less deviation between the judgements of sighted assessors when they saw the apples than when they were blindfolded. The background of this phenomenon might be explained by the uncertainty and disturbed perception, which lead to inconsistent judgements.