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  • Author or Editor: M. Kato x
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Abstract  

A nondestructive photon activation analysis with 30 MeV bremsstrahlung has been applied to the multielement determination in the floor sediments in a region of the Japan Sea. The abundances for 5 major and 11 trace elements were measured in several terrigeous and pelagic deposits, discussion being given on the results. Enrichments in certain trace elements, such as Mn, Ni and Co, were observed in the samples of pelagic areas, but to less extent relative to those of the mid-Pacific areas.

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Abstract  

Rate constant of intermolecular electron transfer (ET) in a photoexcited donor-acceptor model system solvated by a cluster of polar molecules has been expressed in terms of the statistical distribution of the electrostatic potential energy difference between the reacting sites. This distribution has been calculated for a particular case of acetonitrile clusters a ≈120 K by MD computer simulation. The MD values of the cluster reorganization energy and the ET rate constant have been compared with the corresponding MD results for the donor-acceptor pair solvated in bulk acetonitrile and with theoretical predictions based on the continuum model.

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Abstract  

The thermal behavior associated with the melting of ice was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the gel and L-subgel phases of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-water system of varying water contents up to a full hydration. By calorimetric analysis previously developed by us, the numbers of differently bound water molecules were estimated, and used to construct water distribution diagrams (i.e., a plot of the cumulative numbers of these water molecules vs. water content) for the two phases. A comparison of the diagrams revealed the critical role of interlamellar water which changes from freezable to non-freezable one in a conversion of the gel to the L-subgel phase by the thermal annealing.

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Abstract  

The rate constant of radiation induced exchange reaction between thallium(I) and thallium(III) ions has been studied for elucidating the mechanisms which are responsible for (T1(II) intermediates or bridging groups (SO 4 2– ) in sulfuric acid and perchloric acid solutions. It was found that the radiation induced exchange reaction is accelerated by the sulfate ion, and the rate of the thallium(II)-thallium(I) reaction is faster than that of the thallium(II)-thallium(III) process in perchloric acid solution.

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Saline irrigation water has a tremendous impact on the yield potential of crops. The distribution of mineral elements and their ratios in maize plant organs in response to saline water and nitrogen (N) nutrition was studied in a pot experiment for six weeks. The plants were separated into leaf, stalk and root and analysed for calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K) and chloride (Cl) contents. The partitioning and ratios of mineral nutrients in plants were significantly affected by water salinity and nitrogen level. In saline water the roots contained the highest Na content; Ca and Mg were higher in the leaf, whereas K and Cl were highest in the stalk. In non-saline water, Na and Cl were highest in the root and the remaining elements were greatest in the stalk. The K and Cl contents were significantly reduced by an increase in the N level, whereas the reverse was true for the Ca, Mg and Na contents. An inverse relationship was noted for the plant biomass versus both Na uptake and the Na/Ca, Na/Mg and Na/K ratios in plants irrigated with saline water. The mineral elements, with the exception of K, appeared to be highly correlated in the plant parts.

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Abstract  

Chlorine, bromine and iodine (hereafter, halogens) were detemined for rock samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The powdered samples and reference standards prepared from chemical reagents were simultaneously irradiated for 10 to 30 minutes with or without a cadmium filter in a TRIGA-II reactor at the Institute for Atomic Energy, Rikkyo University. The samples were subjected to radiochemical procedures of halogens immediately after the irradiation. Iodine was firstly precipitated as PdI2, and chlorine and bromine were successively precipitated as Ag-halides at the same time. In this study, geological standard rocks, sedimentary rocks and meteorites were analyzed for trace halogens. In some Antarctic meteorites, iodine contents were observed to be anomalously high. Chlorine contents also are somewhat high. The overabundance of iodine and chlorine must be caused by terrestrial contamination on the Antarctica.

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Abstract  

We have investigated effects of shear flow on the structure of lamellar phase in hepta(oxyethylene glycol)—n—hexadecylether—water system using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) under shear flow at the shear rates (

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) from 10–3 s–1 to 50 s–1. In the range
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=10–2 ~1 s–1, significant changes have been observed in both intensity and position of the reflection peak. Small-angle X-ray scattering without shear has been also measured at various concentrations and temperatures. It has been suggested from these results that the shear flow causes contraction of lamellar domains and formation of a new domain composed of disrupted bilayers which grows rapidly with increasing shear rate and reconstructs original microstructures.

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Scope of the study was to find more effective N fertilisation doses and applications to reach not only higher quantity but better quality grains as well as to be able to help preserving the continuity of feed and food quality improvement, since wheat is one of the most consumed crops all over the world.

Samples of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties harvested from the experimental field of the Szent István University in two consecutive crop seasons had been examined in the laboratory of the Crop Production Institute. Effects of nitrogen (N) application on the performance of grain protein were tested. Five high quality winter wheat varieties were studied regarding grain quality traits affected by applying undivided and split doses of N. The evaluated samples show that increasing doses of N topdressing and increasing time of application have beneficial effects on the yield and the value of protein content. Wheat grain protein value ranged between 9.9% of the untreated Mv Karéj and Alföld, where the 120+40 kg ha-1 N was applied resulting in the highest value of 16.0%. Similarly, the gluten values among untreated and N applied plots were in a wide range. Mv Karéj had the lowest wheat gluten value on untreated plot with 18.4% and Alfold had the highest value with 36.8% on the plot where the 120+40 kg ha-1 N was applied. There were no significant changes recorded on test weight and thousand kernel weight. In the case of baking quality, there were significant differences between varieties. The best records were obtained in the case of Mv Toborzö followed by Mv Karéj.

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Abstract  

We have focused on the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-borate ester as a new type plasticizer for solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion secondary battery. Adding the PEG-borate ester into the electrolyte shows the increase in the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte. By measuring the glass-transition temperature of the polymer electrolytes with DSC, it is found that the increase in ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte is due to the increase in ionic mobility. By investigating the temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes using William-Landel-Ferry type equation, we considered that the PEG-borate ester does not have any influence for dissociation of Li-salt.

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