Radon has been recognized to be one of the major contributors to the natural radiation causing even lung cancer if it is present
at enhanced levels. Its monitoring at highly confined locations such as underground caves, mines and tube-wells is very essential
for finding the health related hazards among the workers. This paper reports the investigations of the levels of radon, thoron
and their progeny monitored in the tube-wells of the Halls of residence at A.M.U., Aligarh, which lies in the subtropical
region of Indo-Gangetic plains situated in North India. The twin cup dosimeters were fixed for exposure at a depth of 5–35 feet
with a difference of 5 feet from the ground surface. The values of radon and thoron concentrations were found to vary from
6.58 to 1218.57 and 7.41–3226.61 Bq m−3, respectively. The preliminary results of this study for ‘bare mode’ detectors have been separately published and compared
with the recent data.
Aqueous solution of ferrous-cupric sulfate has been evaluated spectrophotometrically as radiation dosimeter and post-irradiation stability at different storage temperatures has been studied. The response curve drawn at a peak wavelength of 304 nm shows a linear response of up to 7 kGy. However, with proper calibration, the system can be used up to 14 kGy. At room temperature (ca. 25 °C) in the dark, the irradiated solution showed stable response up to about 12 h, followed by a small decrease in response up to 20 d. Post-irradiation storage at lower temperature (10 °C) shows no significant change in absorbance over a storage period of 6 d. However, for storage at higher temperature (40 °C) the dosimeter showed a stable response only up to a few hours and at longer storage times the response of the dosimeter increased.
Characterization of dilute solution of gamma-irradiated polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in acetone has been carried out. The polymer sample in form of natural beads was administered a gamma-ray dose of 30 kGy by a cobalt-60 radiationsource. Various types of viscosities, viscosity average molecular weight, shape and size of irradiated PMMA and its two fractions were calculated. The results were compared with those for unirradiated PMMA. Degradation of PMMA as a result of irradiation has been observed.
Aqueous solution of coumarin (-benzopyrone) has been evaluated spectrophotometrically as a -ray dosimeter. In the present study measurements have been made at peak wavelength of 347 nm as well as at two other wavelengths (i. e. 360 and 370 nm). The response of the dosimeter with respect to absorbed dose is linear in the range of 0.05 to 0.5 kGy when absorption measurements are made at 347 nm. However, this dose range can be increased up to 0.8 kGy if analyzed at longer wavelengths of 360 and 370 nm. Postirradiation stability at room temperature in the dark show that the response increases gradually till 6 d. Afterwards the response is almost stabilized up to 42 d at all the wavelengths studied.
Thermal properties of control phenol formaldehyde (cpf) adhesive and lignin substituted phenol formaldehyde (lpf) adhesives
have been investigated in detail. The effect of varying lignin mass percent of phenol and source of lignin like bagasse, eucalyptus
bark, coconut coirpith and coffee bean shell on the thermal stability have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG)
and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). 50 mass% of lignin loading in cpf adhesive shows better bond strength, whereas
lignin incorporation up to 25 mass% yields a resin of thermal stability comparable to cpf. Loading of lignin in cpf delays
the first thermal transition event. The mass loss in this event was found to increase with increasing lignin content. Lignin
source has significant effect on the thermal stability of lpf resins. Rate of curing is enhanced by incorporation of lignin
Radiosynthesis of 99mTc-sitafloxacin (99mTc-STF) complex and its efficacy as a potential infection imaging agent was evaluated. Effect of sitafloxacin (STF) concentration,
sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4), stannous chloride dihydrate (SnCl2·2H2O), and pH on the % radiochemical purity yield (RCP) of 99mTc-STF complex was studied. A stable 99mTc-STF complex up to 120 min with maximum %RCP yield was observed by mixing 2 mg of STF with 3 mCi of Na99mTcO4 and 150 μL of SnCl2·2H2O (1 μg/μL in 0.01 N HCl) at a pH 5.5. Artificially infected rats with Staphylococcus aureus were used for studying the biodistribution behavior of the 99mTc-STF complex. After 30 min of the intravenous (I.V.) administration of the 99mTc-STF complex, 7.50 ± 0.10% was absorbed in the infected thigh of the rats and the uptake gradually increased to 18.50 ± 0.20%
within 90 min. Rabbits with artificially induced infection were used for evaluating the scintigraphic accuracy. Higher uptake
in the infected thigh was observed after 2 h of I.V. administration of the 99mTc-STF complex. Target to non-target organ ratio of the % absorbed dose incase of infected/normal muscle was 6.82 ± 0.40,
17.11 ± 0.60, and 23.13 ± 1.00% at 30, 60 and 90 min of administration. Stable and higher %RCP, higher uptake in the infected
thigh, and spectral studies, recommend the 99mTc-STF for routine infection imaging.
Sorption of Co on bentonite has been studied by using a batch technique. Distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined for the bentonite-cobalt solution system as a function of contact time, pH, sorbent and sorbate concentration and temperature. Sorption data have been interpreted in terms of Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations. Thermodynamic parameters for the sorption system have been determined at three different temperatures. The positive value of the heat of sorption,
H0=22.08 kJ/mol at 298 K shows that the sorption of cobalt on bentonite is endothermic, where as the negative value of the free energy of sorption,
G0=–10.75 kJ/mol at 298 K shows the spontaneity of the process.
G0 becomes more negative with an increase in temperature which shows that the sorption process is more favourable at higher temperatures. The mean free energyE
7.7 kJ/mol for sorption of cobalt on bentonite shows that ion-exchange is the predominant mode of sorption in the concentration range of the metal studied i.e. 0.01 to 0.3 mol/dm3. The presence of some complementary cations depress the sorption of cobalt on bentonite in the order of K+>Ca2+>Mg2+>Na+. Some organic complexing agents and natural ligands also affect the sorption of cobalt. The desorption studies with ground water at low cobalt loadings on bentonite show that about 97% metal is irreversibly sorbed.
A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of thorium using 0.04% Arsenazo-III in a 2M perchloric acid solution. Absorbance was measured in 1 cm cell and the complex has a sensitive absorption peak at 654 nm. The complex is formed instantly in perchloric acid and remains stable for 45 minutes with constant absorbance. Beer's law is obeyed in the range 1–60 g·g–1 of thorium concentration with a molar absorptivity at 654 nm = 3.07·105 M–1·cm–1 at 24±2°C. The foreign ions interference in thorium determination have been checked. The cations were tested at >60-fold excess of thorium, Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) interfere negatively, whereas only Ce(III) has increased the absorbance. Among the anions, cyanide, phosphate, thiocyanate and acetate at 150-fold excess of thorium cause significant interference. However, thorium can bedetermined in the presence of nitrate, chloride, oxalate, tartrate, ascorbate, thiosulphate and citrate. The method has been applied on certified reference material for thorium determination after extractive separation and the result was found in good agreement with the certified value. The method has been also applied successfully to determine thorium at g·g–1 level in local ore samples with a precision of ±0.04%.
The sorption of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Co(II) from aqueous solutions on alumina under various experimental conditions has been studied by batch techniques. Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubnin-Raduskevich equations have been used to interpret the sorption data. The values of various thermodynamic parameters have been determined. The sorption of Cs(I) and Sr(II) on alumina is exothermic in nature while that of Co(II) is an endothermic process. The
Ho values for Cs(I), Sr(II) and Co(II) were–23.29 KJ/mol at 298K,–35.3 KJ/mol at 293 K and 13.49 KJ/mol at 293 K, respectively. Negative values of
Go show the spontaneity of the sorption processes;
Go values of Cs(I) and Sr(II) becomes less negative at higher temperatures while the
Go values of Co(II) become more negative with increasing temperature. At higher temperatures, less amounts of Cs(I) and Sr(II) and greater amounts of Co(II) are sorbed on alumina. The values of the mean free energies of sorption,E, for Sr(II) and Co(II) at various temperatures were within the range of 7–10 KJ/mol which show that these metals are sorbed on alumina predominantly by an ion-exchange process.