In the area of the typical 3D Békés basin ("graben") high anisotropy (difference) appears in the extreme values of the magnetotelluric impedance phases in the period interval corresponding to the indication of the conductive asthenosphere. As proved by the forward 2D/3D modelling, this anisotropy can only be explained by a strong 2D effect. This fact may conform the validity of the results of the 2D inversion of PGT1 magnetotelluric data indicating the upwelling of the asthenosphere below the Békés basin.
The change of the number of turnip moth (Scotia segetum Schiff.) females was examined at 65 different light trap stations between 1957 and 1990. There are two generations of the examined species in Hungary, but the individual number of the first generation is low year by year, so we processed only the data of the second generation. Only those generations were examined that had more than 100 samples because of the statistical reliability. Thirty-three light trap stations were suitable for this examination. The joint number of yearly caught male and female individuals and also separately the samples of females were summarised for each observing station. The change of female individual number as a function of total individual number was determined from the coherent pairs of value. The connection can be described by linear function. The proportion of females is 38%. The relative frequency of females was also determined in the function of the individual number. The shown point-mass is similar to the damped vibration known at technical systems. It was established that the female proportion was higher than the average if the individual number is low, but it showed average value when the individual number was high. It can also be established that the female proportion is significantly high in some cases before gradation years.
The degree of soil pollutants in the Dunaújváros area has been monitored regularly at 10 sampling points of the town from the upper 0–20 cm and lower 20–40 cm layers of the soils. The quantity of some organic (PAH, TPH) and inorganic (toxic metal) pollutants were determined by GC-MS and ICP analyzation. Microbial status, such as the total cultivable bacteria (CFU) and total catabolic enzyme activity, measured by fluorescein diacetate analysis (FDA) were also estimated. The area of the industrial town could be divided into more and less contaminated regions, although the measured pollutants were far below the estimated permissible limits. However, at some of the more polluted soils even triple amounts of contaminants could be measured compared to the lesscontaminated sites. Among inorganics the Zn microelement reached the highest levels (average is about 100 mg·kg−1 soil), which could be related to the heavy industrial activity. A positive correlation appeared among the organic and inorganic pollutants and also between the pollutants and the measured enzymatic values. The enhanced FDA activity was found at the most contaminated sites preceding the potential “loss of function” on a long-term basis. The fast and reliable microbial parameter could be suggested as further regular monitoring tool.
Authors:E. Kuzmann, M. Varsányi, L. Korecz, A. Vértes, T. Masumoto, F. Deák, Á. Kiss and L. Kiss
Neutron, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to study the possibility of cold nuclear fusion in Fe90Zr10 amorphous ribbon having high hydrogen absorbing ability. No significant changes in the neutron and in the spectra were found at deuterization performed electrochemically at different cathodic potentials. The observed differences between the Mössbauer spectra of samples deuterized in air and in nitrogen atmosphere can be explained by decrease of deuterium uptake as well as by a small heat effect due to reaction of hydrogen with oxygen dissolved in water in the case of electrolysis carried out in air.
Authors:M. Szalai, J. Kőszegi, S. Toepfer and J. Kiss
The larvae of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are largely restricted to the roots of maize as food source, and their feeding damage can cause yield losses. The adults are active flyers in search for pollen sources or for new maize fields to colonise. The D. v. virgifera colonisation of first-year maize fields from adjacent continuous maize fields was studied in a 20 km2 intensive agricultural area in South-Western Hungary between 2008 and 2010. Using non-baited yellow sticky traps the infestation levels of adult D. v. virgifera were compared between six first-year maize fields and seven to 12 adjacent continuous maize fields during a seven week period in July and August in each year. The infestation in the continuous maize fields accounted for more than 60% of the variation in the adult D. v. virgifera captures in the adjacent first-year maize fields indicating that adjacent maize fields are the major source of dispersal into first-year maize and not, or to a lesser extent, the area-wide infestation levels. Therefore, estimating the risks of D. v. virgifera infestations in fields of a maize-rotating farmer can be supported by assessing the infestation levels in neighbouring continuous maize fields.