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Abstract  

Plutonium, seized from illicit trafficking in nuclear materials, can originate from several, distinct sources. The primary focus of nuclear-forensics investigations of confiscated Pu is to specify correctly its origin. We demonstrate that such specification is possible by means of accurate determination the Pu isotopic composition. In this study, five Pu samples of different origins were analysed by thermal-ionisation mass spectrometry. The source (i.e., the type of production reactor) of each sample was determined by comparing the measured Pu isotopic composition with that calculated by one of two reactor-production computer codes, ORIGEN2 and SCALE. These results, in conjunction with the age determination of each sample, allow us to deduce the origin of each.

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Consider a family of closed unit circular discs in the plane. Two discs are called neighbours if they have a point in common. Let N(d) denote the maximum possible number of neighbours of one disc in a family of unit circular discs, where the distance between any two circle centers is at least d. HereN(d) is determined for 1  between any two circle centers is at least d. HereN(d) is determined for 1

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Vital functions and stress hormone levels during simulated emergency helicopter transport in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three volunteers were subjected to a simulated 15 minute rescue helicopter transport. We determined vital functions, ACTH, cortisol and prolactin during the flight and filled in a standardized questionnaire before and after the flight. Data were analysed descriptively, by means of cross tabulation, Spearman rank correlation and cross-correlation technique. During take-off we recorded a significant increase of vital parameters such as heart rate. Prolactin concentration rose slightly after the start. Maximum cortisol and ACTH levels were found before take-off and then they decreased gradually. As expected, ACTH and cortisol cross-correlated significantly without any relevant time lag. Test items showed a feeling of fear and concern before take off. After the flight the volunteers reported havivg less stress than expected. Particularly, diastolic blood pressure and prolactin levels were markedly associated with questionnaire items such as behaviour of the staff or nausea. Heart rate significantly correlated with anxiety scores. Helicopter transportation induced a marked stress reaction in healthy volunteers, which speaks in favour of sooth transports in modern helicopters and adequate behaviour towards the patient of the staff.

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Abstract  

The effects of flame retardants such as hydrated aluminium oxide, antimony trioxide and chloroparaffin on the thermal properties and flammability of sulphur vulcanizates of butyl and halogenated butyl elastomers were studied. The thermoanalytical curves of the elastomers were interpreted. Greater tendencies to thermal degradation were observed for halogenated butyl elastomers than for the original butyl rubber elastomer. This was confirmed by elastomer combustibility studies. The use of these flame retardants allowed the formation of self-extinguishing vulcanizates of the investigated elastomers.

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Abstract  

Correlated measurement of the lifetime and of the lineshape of the 511 keV annihilation radiation of positrons (age-momentum correlation, AMOC) has become a powerful tool for investigating reactions of positron or positronium in condensed matter as a function of time. The beam-based + AMOC method installed at the Stuttgart relativistic positron beam facility (E kin e+ 4MeV) offers substantial advantages over the conventional E coincidence technique resulting in a fast data taking due to the unity detection efficiency of the + scintillator which provides the start signal for the lifetime measurement. In this paper the application of AMOC to positronium chemistry is illustrated by the study of spin conversion of positronium in the system methanol/HTEMPO as a function of HTEMPO (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, a paramagnetic solute) concentration. The same technique can be applied to other systems and other reactions in positronium chemistry, e. g., oxidation or complex formation.

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The pathogenesis of chicken infectious anaemia virus (CAV) infection was studied in 6-week-old and one-day-old SPF chickens inoculated intramuscularly with graded doses of Cux-1 strain (106−102 TCID50/chicken). Viraemia, virus shedding, development of virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies and CAV distribution in the thymus were studied by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunocytochemistry (IP) and in situ hybridization until postinfection day (PID) 28. In 6-week-old chickens infected with high doses of CAV, viraemia and VN antibodies could be detected 4 PID and onward without virus shedding or contact transmission to sentinel birds. However, virus shedding and contact transmission were demonstrated in one-day-old infected chickens. In the 6-weekold groups infected with lower doses, VN antibodies developed by PID 14, transient viraemia and virus shedding were detected. The thymus cortex of all 1-dayold inoculated chickens stained with VP3-specific mAb. Cells with positive in situ hybridization signal were fewer and scattered throughout the thymus tissue of the one-day-old inoculated chickens as compared to IP-positive cells. These results suggest that early immune response induced by high doses of CAV in 6-week-old chickens curtails viral replication and prevents virus shedding.

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Journal of Flow Chemistry
Authors:
René Becker
,
Sebastiaan (Bas) A.M.W. van den Broek
,
Pieter J. Nieuwland
,
Kaspar Koch
, and
Floris P.J.T. Rutjes

Abstract

To expand the knowledge base for fundamental organic reactions in continuous flow, the α-bromination of acetophenone was successfully transformed from a known batch procedure to a continuous flow process in 99 % yield through D-optimal optimisation and subsequent scale-up of the validated optimum. Using a preparative scale system, a space–time yield of 0.26 kg/m3/s (comparable literature batch reaction 0.24 kg/m3/s) was achieved under conditions suitable for laboratory and small-scale industrial application where high yield or purity is required, e.g., when expensive substrates are used.

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