Authors:K. Marković, I. Krbavčić, M. Krpan, D. Bicanic, and N. Vahčić
The lycopene content in pulp and peel of five fresh tomato cultivars, most common on Croatian market, was determined by spectrophotometry and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peels from the raw tomatoes contained more lycopene (expressed on a fresh basis) than the pulps: the ratio was 3.75±1.08 for spectrophotometric and 3.50±0.95 for HPLC measurements. Comparison of the results of lycopene content expressed on a dry weight basis revealed that the peel from raw tomato contains 1.74±0.36 times (spectrophotometry) more lycopene than the pulp as compared to a factor of 1.61±0.24 obtained by HPLC analysis. Fraction of the pulp in a whole tomato was found to vary between 89.9 and 95.2%, while that of tomato peel was between 4.9 and 10.1%. Nutritional habits in Croatia often include tomato-based food, all year around, prepared partlyof whole fresh tomatoes (including peel), partly of industrial tomato products (from which peel is often excluded). This study provides evidence that the peel of one of the most common varieties of tomatoes on Croatian market is richer in lycopene than the pulp and, moreover, that a diet including 100 g of raw tomatoes provides 1.35±0.29 mg lycopene from pulp as compared to 0.35±0.18 mg lycopene from tomato peel. In addition, results of this study will be useful in further attempts to quantify lycopene content of intact, whole tomatoes by means of the nondestructive, photoacoustic method.
Authors:M. Krpan, N. Major, Z. Šatalić, and M. Hruškar
Human breast milk, infant formula, and follow-up milks were tested by a commercial electronic tongue (αAstree, Alpha MOS) with the aim to determine taste diversity, since it has been recently shown that infants exposed to different tastes early in life, develop different food preference at a later age. Human milk (36 samples) were obtained from 13 lactating women, while 12 samples of infant formula and 14 samples of follow-up milk were obtained from the Croatian market and opened prior to analysis. Human breast milk samples showed a much higher diversity than both infant formulae and follow-up milks. These results suggest that breast-fed infants are exposed to a broader sensory experience, while formula fed infants are exposed to less diverse taste. Future studies will probably answer how this influences later food choice, taste preferences, and consequently, risk of obesity and other chronic diseases.