Authors:B. Kubica, W. Kwiatek, E. Dutkiewicz and M. Lekka
Trace element analysis is one of the most important field in analytical chemistry. There are several instrumental techniques which are applied for determinations of microscopic elemental content. The PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique is one of the nuclear techniques that is commonly applied for such purpose due to its multielemental analysis possibilities. The aim of this study was to establish the optimal conditions for target preparation procedure. In this paper two different approaches to the topic are presented and widely discussed.1,2 The first approach was the traditional pellet technique and the second one was mineralization procedure. For the analysis soft tissue such as liver was used. Some results are also presented on water samples
Authors:T. Góral, H. Wiśniewska, P. Ochodzki, D. Walentyn-Góral and M. Kwiatek
Reaction of 19 breeding lines and two cultivars of winter triticale to Fusarium head blight was evaluated. Lines were sown in field experiments in two locations — Radzików and Cerekwica. Triticale heads were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum mixture. Average FHB severity in Radzików ranged from 0 to 13.3% and was lower than in Cerekwica (2.0–22.3%). Fusarium damaged kernels proportion was 10-fold higher in Cerekwica than in Radzików. FDK ranged from 7.3 to 47.0% in Cerekwica and from 0.3 to 5.6% in Radzików. Differences between lines for FBH and FDK were statistically significant for data from both locations. Ergosterol, deoxynivalenol and nivalenol were detected in all samples of triticale grain except one for NIV. Variation range of ERG was 2.22–21.21 in Cerekwica and 1.99–7.67 in Radzików. For DON, variation range was wider in Cerekwica (0.39–11.49 ppm) than in Radzików (0.30–2.98 ppm). NIV concentration was higher in Radzików and varied from 0.03 to 1.62 ppm, and in Cerekwica from 0 to 0.56 ppm. Head infection correlated significantly with FDK and DON concentration. FDK correlated significantly with ERG and DON content for all samples. Lines with all types of FHB resistance were identified.
Authors:W. Kwiatek, B. Kubica, R. Gryboś, M. Krośniak, E. Dutkiewicz and R. Hajduk
Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) were used for vanadium determination in animal tissues. The vanadium concentration levels were determined in blood, kidneys and livers taken from rats. Two groups of the animals were treated with different diets. The diet for the first group was supplemented with vanadium compounds while the diet for the second one was assumed to be a normal diet. The second group was treated as control. In order to achieve the best minimum detectable limit (MDL)1 the samples were subject to a special sample preparation procedure. Blood and kidneys were mineralized with an APDC compound. The mineralization process was performed according to the procedure described previously.2 The application of PIXE3 is very useful for different types of samples. PIXE measurements were performed with a proton beam at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow, Poland while the AAS measurements were done at the Institute of Molecular Biology, Jagiellonian University, Poland. The concentration levels of vanadium in blood and kidneys are compared and discussed. There were no significant statistical differences between results of vanadium concentration levels determined by the abovementioned techniques. The PIXE technique had the advantage over the AAS technique of giving a broad spectrum of trace elements analyzed in a single measurement. Therefore with the help of sample preparation procedure the application of the PIXE method seems to be suitable for such analyzes.
Authors:M. Kwiatek, H. Wiśniewska, Z. Kaczmarek, M. Korbas, M. Gawłowska, M. Majka, K. Pankiewicz, J. Danielewicz and J. Belter
Pch1 gene translocated from Aegilops ventricosa provides effective resistance to eyespot in wheat. To track the Pch1 gene introgression, we investigated 372 genotypes obtained from various breeding programs using endopeptidase EpD1b marker, sequence-tagged-site (STS) marker XustSSR2001-7DL, and the score of infection index (K-index) evaluated after in vivo inoculation test. These genotypes were divided into three groups with 136, 124 and 112 genotypes for the field test lasting three years. In 2011, the mean K-index was 0.81, while 2012 and 2013 the mean K-indexes were 1.60 and 1.46, respectively. Both marker results indicated that 18 genotypes possessed Pch1 gene. Statistical analysis of the level of K-index showed that these 18 genotypes were resistant to eyespot, which verified the proper assignment of wheat genotypes with Pch1 gene based on the marker data. Thus, the endopeptidase and XustSSR2001-7DL are useful for identifying sources of eyespot resistance gene Pch1 in wheat breeding program.