The conductivities of binary mixtures of glycerine and water were measured at 20C by means of a transient method. The equation
describing the correlation between concentration and thermal conductivity was determined. The equation can be used for determining
concentrations in mixtures. The results show that (1) the error in the determination of the molar concentration of water in
mixtures is less than 1%, (2) the time of measurement is 1 s, (3) this method can be used for on-line analysis in production
Authors:M. Zheng, L. Zhang, H. P. Teng, J. Hu, and M. L. Hu
In the present paper, CFD simulation is used to perform the numerical calculation of behaviours of multi-blade drag typed VAWT. The sliding grid technology, FLUENT software and PISO algorithm are involved. By taking wind power efficiency Cp as the goal function, the optimal situations of multi-blade drag typed VAWT with 4 and 6 blades are conducted by CFD simulation. In this investigation, the variable parameters include the rotation rate of wind-mill ω, the blade installation angle θ and the blade width d. The results show that: the optimal working conditions for the 4-blade wind mill at the inlet wind speed 8 m/s are ω = 18 r/ min, θ = 28°, and d = 0.83 m, which induces an optimal wind power efficiency rate Cp = 27.127%; the optimal working conditions for the 6-blade wind mill at the inlet wind speed 8 m/s are ω = 18 r/min, θ = 27°, and d = 0.67 m, which leads to an optimal wind power efficiency rate Cp = 30.404%.
Authors:X. J. Li, X. G. Hu, T. Z. Hu, G. Li, Z. G. Ru, L. L. Zhang, and Y. M. Lang
Thinopyrum ponticum is particularly a valuable source of genes for wheat improvement. A novel wheat-Th. ponticum addition line, 1–27, was identified using cytology, SSR, ESTSSR, EST-STS and PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) markers in this study. Cytological studies showed that 1–27 contained 44 chromosomes and formed 22 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis indicated that two chromosomes from Th. ponticum had been introduced into 1–27 and that these two chromosomes could form a bivalent in wheat background. Such results demonstrated that 1–27 was a disomic addition line with 42 wheat chromosomes and a pair of Th. ponticum chromosomes. One SSR marker (BARC235), one EST-STS marker (MAG3284) and 8 PLUG markers (TNAC1210, TNAC1787, TNAC1803, TNAC1805, TNAC1806, TNAC1821, TNAC1867 and TNAC1957), which were all from wheat chromosome group 7, produced the specific band in Th. ponticum and 1–27, indicating that the introduced Th. ponticum chromosomes belonging to the group 7 of wheat. Sequence analysis on specific bands from Th. ponticum and 1–27 amplified using the PLUG marker TNAC1867 further confirmed this result. The 1–27 addition line was also observed to be high resistant to powdery mildew though it is not clear if the resistance of 1–27 inherited from Th. ponticum. This study provided some useful information for effective exploitation of the source of genetic variability in wheat breeding.
Authors:R.-L. Yun, Y.-M. Chang, C.-H. Lin, K.-H. Hu, and C.-M. Shu
In industrial processes, information
on the safety property of chemicals is essentially crucial for safe handling
during unit operations. Ensuring the safe use of combustible or flammable
substances in processes is unlikely without detailed investigations of their
flammability characteristics and related hazards. We studied 3-methyl pyridine
(3-picoline), e.g., flammability limits (LFL/UFL), maximum explosion pressure
explosion pressure rise (dP/dt)max, minimum oxygen concentration
(MOC), vapor deflagration index (Kg),
and characterized the influence of inert steam (H2O)
on critical parameters for 3-picoline/water mixtures at 270C, 1 atm,
various oxygen concentrations, and vapor mixing ratios (100/0, 30/70, 10/90
and 5/95 vol.%) with a 20-L-Apparatus in simulated conditions, respectively.
The results showed that the flammability characteristics
of 3-picoline(aq) all increased with the oxygen concentration.
However, as the composition of inert steam increased, the flammability parameters
and the degree of fire and explosion hazards were significantly reduced, instead.
This study elucidated the flammability properties of 3-picoline mixed with
inert steam. The conclusions could be applied to proactively prevent the relevant
processes from incurring fire and explosion accidents.
Authors:R. Izadpanah, Á. Dán, Mária Benkő, M. Rusvai, L. Fodor, and B. Harrach
One of the plasmids present in a Haemophilus somnus strain isolated from nasal discharge of a cattle with respiratory disease was purified and cloned for DNA sequencing. The plasmid was found to be 1065 base pairs long with 39.2% G+C content, and showed no homology to any DNA sequenced so far. It has no capacity to code any protein longer than 43 residues. It is not clear yet if this plasmid codes Haemophilus somnus specific factors.
Authors:P. Sóos, M. Mojzis, A. Pollner, and L. Sümeghy
The vaccine-induced maternal immunity against classical swine fever (CSF) was investigated in this study. Eight sows were vaccinated with the Chinese strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The length of time between vaccination and farrowing was 167-217 days. Milk samples from the front, middle and back udder sections and blood samples were taken from the sows on days 3 and 14 after farrowing. Blood samples were obtained from the piglets at the age of 3, 6 and 10 weeks. The antibody level of the milk was examined by ELISA, and that of blood samples by the virus neutralization (VN) test as well. In all 3-week-old piglets and in 80% of the 6-week-old animals the neutralizing antibody level reached the titre of 1:40. In none of the 10-week-old piglets did the titre exceed the value of 1:20, but in about 25% of the piglets it reached 1:20; the half of these piglets came from two litters. In none of the piglets did the antibody level reach the negative threshold in the ELISA test during the study. No significant differences were found between the udder sections in milk antibody level by ELISA.
Authors:M. Zheng, Y. Tian, H. Teng, J. Hu, F. Wang, Y. Zhao, and L. Yu
In this paper, the wind energy resource in China’s oilfields is analyzed, the difference between China’s energy consumption structure and that of the world in average is analyzed as well, and the application prospect of wind heating technology in China’s oilfields is discussed as an example to reform China’s energy consumption structure. It shows that it is possible to use wind energy as an appropriate heat resource or supplementary heat source in some oilfields to supply heat energy for oil heating and living, more room to improve the energy resource utilization in various fields in China remain. It is a benefit to both oilfield and society to improve energy saving and environments.
Authors:A. L. Borhidi, M. Fernández Zequeira, and R. Oviedo-Prieto
An important molecular-phylogenetic monography appeared about the Chiococceae tribe of the Caribbean region by Paudyal et al. (2018) proposing several new taxonomic modifying decisions concerning also to the monographic treatment of the recently (2017) published Rubiáceas de Cuba, as the confirmation and extension of the genus Solenandra revalidated by Borhidi (2002) and the separation of the new endemic Cuban genus Ramonadoxa Paudyal and Delprete from Chiococca. The molecular-phylogenetic studies did not verify the separation of Ceuthocarpus Aiello from Schmidtottia Urb. neither Phyllacanthus Hook. f. as independent genus from Catesbaea L.
Authors:A. L. Borhidi, R. Oviedo-Prieto, and M. Fernández-Zequeira
The authors carried out a taxonomic study and revised and identified about 7,000 herbarium sheets of the genera Palicourea and Psychotria preserved in the collections of the Academy of Sciences of Cuba (HAC) and of the National Botanical Garden of Cuba (HAJB) with the purpose to complete the manuscript in preparation for the volume of the Rubiaceae Family of the Flora of Cuba. The results are as follows: Recognized 20 species of the genus Palicourea and 59 species of Psychotria. Revalidated 4 species new to the Flora of Cuba: Palicourea brachystigma Urb., Psychotria brevinodis Urb., Psychotria earlei Urb. and Psychotria tubulocubensis Govaerts. Established 3 new combinations: Palicourea ekmanii (Urb.) Borhidi et Oviedo, Palicourea odorata (Wr. ex Griseb.) Borhidi et Oviedo and Psychotria costivenia subsp. clementis (Britt.) Borhidi et Oviedo. Recognized and described 9 species and 1 subspecies of the genus Psychotria new to science: P. bissei Borhidi et Oviedo, P. brittonii Oviedo et Borhidi, P. ermitensis Borhidi et Oviedo, P. cromophila Oviedo et Borhidi, P. oblongicarpa Borhidi et Oviedo, P. pulchrinervis Borhidi et Oviedo, P. reflexiloba Borhidi et Oviedo, Psychotria reflexipes Borhidi et Oviedo, Psychotria rubens Borhidi et Oviedo, Psychotria costivenia subsp. wrightiana Borhidi et Oviedo. Following the concept of C. W. Hamilton (1989) recognised 10 species groups, 5 of them identical with the described ones from Mexico and Central America: the carthagenensis group with 4 species, the costivenia group with 10 species, the graciliflora group with 9 species, the nervosa group with 3 and the tenuifolia group with 1 species. Furthermore, the authors established 5 new groups, characteristic for the Greater Antillean flora: cathetoneura group with 4 species, the evenia group with 7 species, the lasiophthalma group with 4 species, the revoluta group with 10 species and the shaferi group with 9 species.
Authors:L. Stipkovits, Á Dán, Erika Varga, Paula De Santis, Rosella Lelly, Éva Kaszanyitzky, Ildikó Ferenczné Paluska, M. Tenk, L. Tekes, and B. Harrach
At abattoirs and farms, 1248 sera were collected from animals representing 121 farms, and examined by complement fixation test using Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (MmmSC) antigen. All sera were negative except seven from four farms, giving ++ reactions in the serum dilution of 1:10. On retesting, these sera and additional 30 sera collected repeatedly in both farms gave negative results. In isolation attempts, 953 lung samples collected from slaughtered cattle at the same abattoirs, and 326 nasal swabs collected from 11 herds proved to be negative for the presence of MmmSC, but M. bovis was isolated frequently. In the small farms 23.95% of the animals had pleurisy and/or pneumonia while in the large herds 34.69% had lesions. DNA extracted from 50 nasal swabs and 430 lung samples was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using M. mycoides cluster-specific primers. DNA from further 325 lung samples was tested by the more specific M. mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony/large colony/capri specific primers and 196 samples by nested PCR specific for MmmSC. All gave negative results. The detection level of cluster-specific primers and the more specific primers was 33.4 pg of DNA, whereas that of nested PCR was 0.33 pg.